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Molecular Characterisation of a Supergene Conditioning Super-High Vitamin C in Kiwifruit Hybrids

1
New Cultivar Innovation, The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Private Bag 4704, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
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Biochemistry Department, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
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New Cultivar Innovation, The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Private Bag 11600, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
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New Cultivar Innovation, The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Private Bag 92169, Auckland Mail Centre, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
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New Cultivar Innovation, The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, 412 No 1 Road, RD 2 Te Puke 3182, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(7), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070237
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
During analysis of kiwifruit derived from hybrids between the high vitamin C (ascorbic acid; AsA) species Actinidia eriantha and A. chinensis, we observed bimodal segregation of fruit AsA concentration suggesting major gene segregation. To test this hypothesis, we performed whole-genome sequencing on pools of hybrid genotypes with either high or low AsA fruit. Pool-GWAS (genome-wide association study) revealed a single Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) spanning more than 5 Mbp on chromosome 26, which we denote as qAsA26.1. A co-dominant PCR marker was used to validate this association in four diploid (A. chinensis × A. eriantha) × A. chinensis backcross families, showing that the A. eriantha allele at this locus increases fruit AsA levels by 250 mg/100 g fresh weight. Inspection of genome composition and recombination in other A. chinensis genetic maps confirmed that the qAsA26.1 region bears hallmarks of suppressed recombination. The molecular fingerprint of this locus was examined in leaves of backcross validation families by RNA sequencing (RNASEQ). This confirmed strong allelic expression bias across this region as well as differential expression of transcripts on other chromosomes. This evidence suggests that the region harbouring qAsA26.1 constitutes a supergene, which may condition multiple pleiotropic effects on metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: kiwifruit; genomics; polyploidy; breeding; ascorbic acid; vitamin C kiwifruit; genomics; polyploidy; breeding; ascorbic acid; vitamin C
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MDPI and ACS Style

McCallum, J.; Laing, W.; Bulley, S.; Thomson, S.; Catanach, A.; Shaw, M.; Knaebel, M.; Tahir, J.; Deroles, S.; Timmerman-Vaughan, G.; Crowhurst, R.; Hilario, E.; Chisnall, M.; Lee, R.; Macknight, R.; Seal, A. Molecular Characterisation of a Supergene Conditioning Super-High Vitamin C in Kiwifruit Hybrids. Plants 2019, 8, 237. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070237

AMA Style

McCallum J, Laing W, Bulley S, Thomson S, Catanach A, Shaw M, Knaebel M, Tahir J, Deroles S, Timmerman-Vaughan G, Crowhurst R, Hilario E, Chisnall M, Lee R, Macknight R, Seal A. Molecular Characterisation of a Supergene Conditioning Super-High Vitamin C in Kiwifruit Hybrids. Plants. 2019; 8(7):237. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070237

Chicago/Turabian Style

McCallum, John, William Laing, Sean Bulley, Susan Thomson, Andrew Catanach, Martin Shaw, Mareike Knaebel, Jibran Tahir, Simon Deroles, Gail Timmerman-Vaughan, Ross Crowhurst, Elena Hilario, Matthew Chisnall, Robyn Lee, Richard Macknight, and Alan Seal. 2019. "Molecular Characterisation of a Supergene Conditioning Super-High Vitamin C in Kiwifruit Hybrids" Plants 8, no. 7: 237. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070237

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