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Open AccessArticle

Genetic Structure of Cultivated Varieties of Radicchio (Cichorium intybus L.): A Comparison between F1 Hybrids and Synthetics

Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment, University of Padova, 35020 Legnaro PD, Italy
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Plants 2019, 8(7), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070213
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics for Plant Breeding)
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Abstract

Cichorium intybus L., well known in Italy with the common name “Radicchio”, is an important leafy vegetable that is prevalently reproduced by allogamy due to very efficient barriers of self-incompatibility. Marker-assisted breeding is widely used by seed firms to develop new hybrid varieties that manifest genetic distinctiveness, uniformity and stability. A total of 29 mapped microsatellite markers were used for genotyping 504 samples of the Red of Chioggia biotype: First, two synthetics, four F1 hybrids and two derived F2 populations were compared to assess the distinctiveness of their gene pool and structure; then, the uniformity and stability of 3 years of production of a commercial F1 variety were also investigated. Genetic similarity and diversity statistics as well as the genetic structure of populations were analysed, including allele and genotype frequencies. The mean estimates and ranges of genetic similarity enabled the molecular discrimination of OP synthetics from F1 varieties and their F2 progenies and the determination of individual plant memberships. Moreover, the genetic structure of F1 hybrids produced in 3 years unexpectedly revealed two main clusters that discriminate the first 2 years from the 3rd, mainly because of the presence of uncommon specific alleles and different allele frequencies. Overall, this molecular information will enable breeders to determine the genetic distinctness, uniformity and stability of commercial and experimental varieties, as well as their genetic relationships and relatedness. Hence, this work provides a useful tool for achieving the molecular characterisation and genetic identification of different radicchio populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: SSR markers; red-chicory; genotyping; microsatellite; DUS test; plant breeders’ rights SSR markers; red-chicory; genotyping; microsatellite; DUS test; plant breeders’ rights
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Patella, A.; Scariolo, F.; Palumbo, F.; Barcaccia, G. Genetic Structure of Cultivated Varieties of Radicchio (Cichorium intybus L.): A Comparison between F1 Hybrids and Synthetics. Plants 2019, 8, 213.

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