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Phylogenetic Reconstruction and Divergence Time Estimation of Blumea DC. (Asteraceae: Inuleae) in China Based on nrDNA ITS and cpDNA trnL-F Sequences

1
Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute/Hainan Provincial Engineering Research Center for Blumea Balsamifera, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS), Haikou 571101, China
2
School of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Plants 2019, 8(7), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070210
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Phylogenetics)
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Abstract

The genus Blumea is one of the most economically important genera of Inuleae (Asteraceae) in China. It is particularly diverse in South China, where 30 species are found, more than half of which are used as herbal medicines or in the chemical industry. However, little is known regarding the phylogenetic relationships and molecular evolution of this genus in China. We used nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) trnL-F sequences to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship and estimate the divergence time of Blumea in China. The results indicated that the genus Blumea is monophyletic and it could be divided into two clades that differ with respect to the habitat, morphology, chromosome type, and chemical composition of their members. The divergence time of Blumea was estimated based on the two root times of Asteraceae. The results indicated that the root age of Asteraceae of 76–66 Ma may maintain relatively accurate divergence time estimation for Blumea, and Blumea might had diverged around 49.00–18.43 Ma. This common ancestor had an explosive expansion during the Oligocene and Miocene and two major clades were differentiated during these epochs 29.60 Ma (17.76–45.23 Ma 95% HPD (Highest Posterior Density). Evidence from paleogeography and paleoclimate studies has confirmed that Blumea experienced differentiation and an explosive expansion during the Oligocene and Miocene. View Full-Text
Keywords: Blumea DC.; cpDNA trnL-F; diversification time; nrDNA ITS; temporal origin Blumea DC.; cpDNA trnL-F; diversification time; nrDNA ITS; temporal origin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhang, Y.-B.; Yuan, Y.; Pang, Y.-X.; Yu, F.-L.; Yuan, C.; Wang, D.; Hu, X. Phylogenetic Reconstruction and Divergence Time Estimation of Blumea DC. (Asteraceae: Inuleae) in China Based on nrDNA ITS and cpDNA trnL-F Sequences. Plants 2019, 8, 210.

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