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Plants 2019, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8020035

Plant Growth Regulators Improve the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Two Rose Varieties

1
School of Veterinary and Life Science, Murdoch University, 90 South St., Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
2
Faculty of Agriculture, Al Qasim Green University, Babylon 51002, Iraq
3
Plant Quarantine Technology Centre, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (APQA), Gimcheon 39660, Korea
4
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Najaf 54003, Iraq
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both Mohammed Ibrahim and Manjree Agarwal contributed equally as first authors.
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract

The study focused on the influence of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) benzyladenine (BA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the flowers of two modern rose varieties, Hybrid Tea and Floribunda. Thirty-six plants of Hybrid Tea and Floribunda were tested. Benzyladenine and naphthalene acetic acid were applied at 0, 100 and 200 mg/L to both rose varieties. Gas chromatography, coupled with flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry, was used to analyze and identify the volatile organic compounds from the flowers. A three-phase fiber 50/30 µm divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane was used to capture VOCs, at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, and 4 weeks was selected as it had the highest peak area. In total, 81 and 76 VOCs were detected after treatment of both rose varieties with BA and NAA, respectively. In addition, 20 compounds, which had significant differences between different treatments, were identified from both rose varieties. The majority of VOCs were extracted after the application of 200 mg (BA and NAA) /L of formulation, and four important compounds, cis-muurola-4(141)5-diene, y-candinene, y-muurolene and prenyl acetate, increased significantly compared to the controls. These compounds are commercially important aroma chemicals. This study used the rapid and solvent-free SPME method to show that BA and NAA treatments can result in significant VOC production in the flowers of two rose varieties, enhancing the aromatic value of the flowers. This method has the potential to be applied to other valuable aromatic floricultural plant species. View Full-Text
Keywords: benzyladenine; naphthalene acetic acid; Hybrid Tea; Floribunda; HS-SPME; GC-MS benzyladenine; naphthalene acetic acid; Hybrid Tea; Floribunda; HS-SPME; GC-MS
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Ibrahim, M.; Agarwal, M.; Yang, J.O.; Abdulhussein, M.; Du, X.; Hardy, G.; Ren, Y. Plant Growth Regulators Improve the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Two Rose Varieties. Plants 2019, 8, 35.

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