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Open AccessArticle

Chemical and Antifungal Variability of Several Accessions of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. from Six Locations Across the Colombian Caribbean Coast: Identification of Antifungal Azadirone Limonoids

1
Grupo de Química y Bioprospección de Productos Naturales, Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta 470004, Colombia
2
Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Cajicá 250247, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(12), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120555
Received: 3 November 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 25 November 2019 / Published: 29 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plants)
Plant materials (i.e., leaves, fruits, and seeds) from 40 trees of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. were collected from six different locations across the Colombian Caribbean coast. Eighty-four ethanolic extracts were prepared and the total limonoid contents (TLiC) and the antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum conidia were measured. Their chemical profiles were also recorded via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization interface-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis and the top-ranked features were then annotated after supervised multivariate statistics. Inter-location chemical variability within sample set was assessed by sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis (sPLS-DA) and the chemical profiles and biological activity datasets were integrated through single-Y orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) to identify antifungal bioactives in test extracts. The TLiC and antifungal activity (IC50 values) of the A. indica-derived extracts were found to be ranging from 4.5 to 48.5 mg limonin equivalent per g dry extract and 0.08–44.8 μg/mL, respectively. The presence/abundance of particular limonoids between collected samples influenced the variability among locations. In addition, the integration of chemical and antifungal activity datasets showed five features as markers probably contributing to the bioactivity, annotated as compounds with an azadirone-like moiety. To validate the information provided by the single-Y OPLS model, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based microfractionation was then carried out on an active extract. The combined plot of chromatographic profile and microfraction bioactivity also evidenced five signals possessing the highest antifungal activity. The most active limonoid was identified as nimonol 1. Hence, this untargeted metabolite profiling was considered as a convenient tool for identifying metabolites as inter-location markers as well as antifungals against Fusarium oxysporum. View Full-Text
Keywords: Azadirachta indica; Fusarium oxysporum; chemical variability; limonoids; antifungals Azadirachta indica; Fusarium oxysporum; chemical variability; limonoids; antifungals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Álvarez-Caballero, J.M.; Coy-Barrera, E. Chemical and Antifungal Variability of Several Accessions of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. from Six Locations Across the Colombian Caribbean Coast: Identification of Antifungal Azadirone Limonoids. Plants 2019, 8, 555.

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