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Open AccessArticle

Chromatographic Fingerprinting of the Old World Lupins Seed Alkaloids: A Supplemental Tool in Species Discrimination

1
Department of Genomics, Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Strzeszyńska 34, 60-479 Poznań, Poland
2
Poznan Plant Breeders Ltd., Wiatrowo Plant Breeding Branch, 62-100 Wągrowiec, Poland
3
Department of Biometry and Bioinformatics, Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Strzeszyńska 34, 60-479 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(12), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120548
Received: 14 October 2019 / Revised: 20 November 2019 / Accepted: 25 November 2019 / Published: 27 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemistry)
The total contents and qualitative compositions of alkaloids in seeds of 10 Old World lupin species (73 accessions) were surveyed using gas chromatography. The obtained results, combined with those for three lupin crops, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus albus, and Lupinus luteus, provide the most complete and up-to-date overview of alkaloid profiles of 13 lupin species originating from the Mediterranean Basin. The qualitative alkaloid compositions served as useful supplementary tools of species discrimination. On the basis of the most abundant major alkaloids, lupanine, lupinine, and multiflorine, the Old World lupin species were divided into four groups. Those containing lupanine (L. angustifolius, L. albus, and Lupinus mariae-josephi), containing lupinine (Lupinus luteus, Lupinus hispanicus, and Lupinus × hispanicoluteus), containing lupinine and multiflorine (Lupinus atlanticus, Lupinus palaestinus, Lupinus anatolicus, Lupinus digitatus, Lupinus pilosus, and Lupinus cosentinii), and containing multiflorine (Lupinus micranthus). Within a given group, certain species can be, in most cases, further distinguished by the presence of other major alkaloids. The discrimination of species based on the total alkaloid content was found to be less reliable because of the significant intra-species variations, as well as the influences of environmental factors on the seed alkaloid content.
Keywords: alkaloid profiles; species discrimination; Old World lupins; gas chromatography; Lupinus; valorization of genetic resources alkaloid profiles; species discrimination; Old World lupins; gas chromatography; Lupinus; valorization of genetic resources
MDPI and ACS Style

Święcicki, W.; Czepiel, K.; Wilczura, P.; Barzyk, P.; Kaczmarek, Z.; Kroc, M. Chromatographic Fingerprinting of the Old World Lupins Seed Alkaloids: A Supplemental Tool in Species Discrimination. Plants 2019, 8, 548.

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