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Unraveling Morphophysiological and Biochemical Responses of Triticum aestivum L. to Extreme pH: Coordinated Actions of Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems

1
Laboratory of Plant Stress Response, Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan
2
Citrus Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Jaintapur, Sylhet 3156, Bangladesh
3
Department of Agronomy, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
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Department of Agroforestry and Environmental Science, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
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Department of Agricultural Botany, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8010024
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology and Metabolism)
Soil pH, either low (acidity) or high (alkalinity), is one of the major constraints that affect many biochemical and biological processes within the cell. The present study was carried out to understand the oxidative damage and antioxidant defense in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. BARI Gom-25) grown under different pH regimes. Eight-day-old seedlings were exposed to growing media with different pH levels (4.0, 5.5, 7.0, and 8.5). Seedlings grown in pH 4.0 and in pH 8.5 showed reductions in biomass, water, and chlorophyll contents; whereas plants grown at pH 7.0 (neutral) exhibited a better performance. Extremely acidic (pH 4.0) and/or strongly alkaline (pH 8.5)-stress also increased oxidative damage in wheat by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and methylglyoxal (MG) production, which increased lipid peroxidation and disrupted the redox state. In contrary, the lowest oxidative damage was observed at a neutral condition, followed by a strong acidic condition (pH 5.5), which was mainly attributed to the better performance of the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems. Interestingly, seedlings grown at pH 5.5 showed a significant increase in morphophysiological attributes compared with extreme acidic (pH 4.0)- and strong alkaline (pH 8.5)-stress treatments, which indicates the tolerance of wheat to the acidic condition. View Full-Text
Keywords: acidity; alkalinity; antioxidant defense; methylglyoxal; phytotoxicity; reactive oxygen species acidity; alkalinity; antioxidant defense; methylglyoxal; phytotoxicity; reactive oxygen species
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Bhuyan, M.H.M.B.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Mahmud, J.A.; Hossain, M.S.; Bhuiyan, T.F.; Fujita, M. Unraveling Morphophysiological and Biochemical Responses of Triticum aestivum L. to Extreme pH: Coordinated Actions of Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems. Plants 2019, 8, 24.

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