Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Abscisic Acid: Hidden Architect of Root System Structure
Previous Article in Journal
Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cell Wall Amine Oxidases: New Players in Root Xylem Differentiation under Stress Conditions
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Plants 2015, 4(3), 523-547;

Hormonal Control of Lateral Root and Nodule Development in Legumes

INRA, Laboratoire des Interactions Plantes-Microorganismes (LIPM), UMR441, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France
CNRS, Laboratoire des Interactions Plantes-Microorganismes (LIPM), UMR2594, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France
Academic Editor: Rujin Chen
Received: 16 June 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Root Development)
Full-Text   |   PDF [720 KB, uploaded 7 August 2015]   |  


Many plants can establish symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, some of which lead to nodulation, including legumes. Indeed, in the rhizobium/legume symbiosis, new root organs, called nodules, are formed by the plant in order to host the rhizobia in protective conditions, optimized for nitrogen fixation. In this way, these plants can benefit from the reduction of atmospheric dinitrogen into ammonia by the hosted bacteria, and in exchange the plant provides the rhizobia with a carbon source. Since this symbiosis is costly for the plant it is highly regulated. Both legume nodule and lateral root organogenesis involve divisions of the root inner tissues, and both developmental programs are tightly controlled by plant hormones. In fact, most of the major plant hormones, such as auxin, cytokinins, abscisic acid, and strigolactones, control both lateral root formation and nodule organogenesis, but often in an opposite manner. This suggests that the sensitivity of legume plants to some phytohormones could be linked to the antagonism that exists between the processes of nodulation and lateral root formation. Here, we will review the implication of some major phytohormones in lateral root formation in legumes, compare them with their roles in nodulation, and discuss specificities and divergences from non-legume eudicot plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. View Full-Text
Keywords: auxin; peptides; lateral root; local/systemic regulation; miRNA; Medicago truncatula auxin; peptides; lateral root; local/systemic regulation; miRNA; Medicago truncatula

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bensmihen, S. Hormonal Control of Lateral Root and Nodule Development in Legumes. Plants 2015, 4, 523-547.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Plants EISSN 2223-7747 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top