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Article

The Effect of Granular Activated Carbon and Biochar on the Availability of Cu and Zn to Hordeum sativum Distichum in Contaminated Soil

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Academy of Biology and Biotechnology, Southern Federal University, Stachki Ave. 194/1, 344090 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
2
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tula State Lev Tolstoy Pedagogical University, Lenin Ave. 125, 300041 Tula, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jacynthe Dessureault-Rompré, Judith Nyiraneza and Tandra D. Fraser
Plants 2021, 10(5), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050841
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 18 April 2021 / Accepted: 19 April 2021 / Published: 22 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Soil Interactions: From Soil Fertility to Crop Growth)
The presence of heavy metals in the soil could impose serious problems on soil-plant systems due to the accumulation of heavy metals in plants. Even vital elements such as Cu and Zn have a toxic effect in the case of excessive intake by living organisms. The present work aimed to investigate the content of loosely bound (exchangeable, complexed, and specifically sorbed) compounds of Cu and Zn and their availability to spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum) in contaminated Haplic Chernozem soil under the conditions of a model experiment (five approximate permissible concentrations (APC) and 10 APC of metal). Changes in the bioavailability of the metals upon application of carbon sorbents were observed. An increase in loosely bound metal compounds has been shown under conditions of soil contamination with metals (up to 57% of the total content). The increase in the availability of Cu in the soil was mainly due to the formation of complexed metal forms with organic matter (up to 17%). The availability of Zn was found to be associated with an increase in exchangeable (up to 21%) and specifically sorbed compounds (up to 27%). Granular activated carbon (GAC) and biochar have high sorption properties. A decrease in the content of loosely bound compounds of metals was established, especially in the most mobile forms such as exchangeable and complexed forms. The introduction of sorbents into the soil opened up a new venue for binding heavy metals in situ, eventually leading to a decrease in their bioavailability. The inactivation of Cu and Zn in the soil upon the application of sorbents led to a decrease in metal absorption by spring barley. The highest efficiency of biochar application was established at a dose of 2.5% and 5% in soil contaminations of 5 APC and 10 APC of Cu or Zn. The efficiency of the use of sorbents was more influenced by the dose of application than by the type of sorbent. There was no significant difference between biochar and GAC. Stabilization and inactivation of metals may improve soil fertility and plant growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil; heavy metals; granular activated carbon; biochar; immobilization; spring barley; remediation soil; heavy metals; granular activated carbon; biochar; immobilization; spring barley; remediation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Burachevskaya, M.; Mandzhieva, S.; Bauer, T.; Minkina, T.; Rajput, V.; Chaplygin, V.; Fedorenko, A.; Chernikova, N.; Zamulina, I.; Kolesnikov, S.; Sushkova, S.; Perelomov, L. The Effect of Granular Activated Carbon and Biochar on the Availability of Cu and Zn to Hordeum sativum Distichum in Contaminated Soil. Plants 2021, 10, 841. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050841

AMA Style

Burachevskaya M, Mandzhieva S, Bauer T, Minkina T, Rajput V, Chaplygin V, Fedorenko A, Chernikova N, Zamulina I, Kolesnikov S, Sushkova S, Perelomov L. The Effect of Granular Activated Carbon and Biochar on the Availability of Cu and Zn to Hordeum sativum Distichum in Contaminated Soil. Plants. 2021; 10(5):841. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050841

Chicago/Turabian Style

Burachevskaya, Marina, Saglara Mandzhieva, Tatiana Bauer, Tatiana Minkina, Vishnu Rajput, Victor Chaplygin, Aleksey Fedorenko, Natalia Chernikova, Inna Zamulina, Sergey Kolesnikov, Svetlana Sushkova, and Leonid Perelomov. 2021. "The Effect of Granular Activated Carbon and Biochar on the Availability of Cu and Zn to Hordeum sativum Distichum in Contaminated Soil" Plants 10, no. 5: 841. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050841

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