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Article

Floristic and Vegetation Changes on a Small Mediterranean Island over the Last Century

by
Saverio Sciandrello
1,*,
Salvatore Cambria
1,
Gianpietro Giusso del Galdo
1,
Riccardo Guarino
2,
Pietro Minissale
1,
Salvatore Pasta
3,
Gianmarco Tavilla
1 and
Antonia Cristaudo
1
1
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, via A. Longo 19, 95125 Catania, Italy
2
Department STEBICEF, University of Palermo, via Archirafi 38, 90123 Palermo, Italy
3
Institute of Biosciences and BioResources (IBBR), National Research Council (CNR), Unit of Palermo, Corso Calatafimi 414, 90129 Palermo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2021, 10(4), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040680
Submission received: 2 March 2021 / Revised: 23 March 2021 / Accepted: 28 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Systematics, Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Classification)

Abstract

:
A synthetic and updated overview about the vascular flora and vegetation of the Island of Capo Passero (SE-Sicily) is provided. These data issue from two series of field surveys—the first carried out between 1997 and 2000, and the second between 2005 and 2019 and mostly focused on refining and implementing vegetation data. The current islet’s flora consists of 269 taxa, of which 149 (58%) are annual plants. The Mediterranean species are largely prevailing, 108 (40%) of which have a strictly Mediterranean biogeographical status. The comparison with a species list published in 1919 and updated in 1957 suggest that, despite the overall prevalence of anemochorous taxa, the vertebrate fauna represents an important vector for the plant colonization of the island, while the immigration of myrmechocorous taxa does not compensate the extinction rate. As many as 202 phytosociological relevés, 191 of which issue from original recent field surveys, enabled identifying 12 different plant communities. The comparison with a vegetation map published in 1965 suggests a strong reduction in dune habitats (2120 and 2210 according to EU ‘Habitats’ Directive 92/43), as well as a deep disruption in the succession typical of the local psammophilous vegetation series. In order to preserve rare, endangered and protected plant species (such as Aeluropus lagopoides, Cichorium spinosum, Limonium hyblaeum, L. syracusanum, Poterium spinosum, Senecio pygmaeus and Spergularia heldreichii) and to stop the ongoing habitat degradation, urgent and effective conservation measures should be adopted for this tiny, yet precious islet.

1. Introduction

Although they represent a small part of the emerged lands, islands host a remarkable portion of the global biological richness [1]. Indeed, the isolation of these lands and their ecosystems has not only favoured the processes of evolutionary divergence and endemism, but also offered refuge to organisms that are threatened or have disappeared elsewhere.
Additionally, the small uninhabited islets offer an exceptional research field for life scientists because they represent both conservative and extremely simplified contexts [2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]. As for the small circum-Sicilian islets, they represent sites of high conservation value for the occurrence of several endemic or rare vascular plant species [10,11]. In the past, many of them drove the interest of botanists, which have mainly investigated their vascular floras [12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27].
Among the circum-Sicilian islets, the Island of Capo Passero (SW-Sicily) stands out for having a prominent interest because, thanks to its easy accessibility, it has been targeted by numerous botanists. Its vascular flora was investigated for the first time during spring 1664 by the English botanist John Ray, who recorded more than 60 plants. Even if incomplete, Ray’s list probably represents the first inventory of a small Mediterranean island and provides interesting information on the plants growing there more than 350 years ago [28,29].
A far more complete plant species list, issuing from two visits carried out on the islet (1909 and 1917), was published long time after by Albo [30], with some additions 40 years later [31]. The Island of Capo Passero has been attractive to botanists not only for its flora but also for its landscape peculiarities. For instance, Albo [30] emphasized the remarkable integrity and extent of the local dwarf palm (Chamaerops humilis L.) community, defined in the same years as “the most beautiful dwarf-palm shrubland in Italy” [32]. The first vegetation surveys were carried out on the islet by Pirola [33,34]. During the following decades, many species new to Island of Capo Passero have been reported by Galletti [35] and by Camatta et al. [36].
In the last 25 years, the authors of the present contribution carried out two series of field surveys. The first one (from 1997 to 2000) enabled actualizing local flora and vegetation data, the second (from 2005 to 2019) was mostly focused on refining and implementing the vegetation dataset. With the exception of some information already published by Cristaudo and Maugeri [37] and Cristaudo and Margani [38], the data issuing from both campaigns are here presented for the first time. Main objective of this contribution are: (1) to provide an updated list of the local vascular flora, (2) to present a comprehensive syntaxonomic framework of the local plant communities, and (3) to perform a diachronic analysis of the flora and vegetation changes occurred during last 60 years and provide an explanation for them.

2. Results and Discussion

2.1. The Vascular Flora: Traits Analysis and Taxa of Outstanding Interest

The vascular plant species recorded from the Island of Capo Passero during the last century and their related traits are listed in alphabetical order in Appendix A.
Our field surveys enabled confirming the occurrence of 269 taxa belonging to 55 families. The families represented by more than 10 taxa were the following: Asteraceae (42 taxa), Poaceae (38 taxa), Fabaceae (29 taxa), Caryophyllaceae (14 taxa) and Apiaceae (11 taxa). Therophytes were the prevalent life form (149 taxa, i.e., 56% of the whole flora), followed by hemicryptophytes (64; 23%) and geophytes (29; 11%), while the percentage of chamaephytes (16; 6%) and (nano-)phanerophytes (11; 4%) was very low (Figure 1).
The Mediterranean chorotype was largely prevailing (124 taxa; 46%). Relevant was also the presence of the wide-Mediterranean (48; 18%) and (sub-)cosmopolitan taxa (34; 12%). The endemic component included two taxa restricted to SE-Sicily, Limonium hyblaeum and L. syracusanum, one restricted to SE-Sicily, Lampedusa and the Maltese Islands, Senecio pygmaeus, and two restricted to Sicily and southern Italy, Crocus longiflorus and Echium italicum subsp. siculum. The alien component, lumped into the category "other", is really negligible, being represented by five species which do not show any invasive behaviour locally (see Appendix A for details).
The ecological fingerprint of the vascular flora of the Island of Capo Passero, based on the Ellenberg’s indicator values [39], suggested the intense solar radiation and the summer drought stress as major environmental drivers on the island, along with a neutral soil reaction and a relative lack of nutrients (Figure 2).
The pollination strategies of the flora of the Island of Capo Passero almost perfectly overlapped those of the whole Sicilian flora, characterized by a large prevalence of enthomophilous taxa (Figure 2). Similarly, no significant variations were observed in the seed dispersal strategies, apart from endozoochory, that is proportionally more represented in the flora of Sicily (Figure 3, first two columns).
The floristic differences with respect to the Albo’s checklists [30,31] suggested that, despite the overall prevalence of anemochorous taxa, the vertebrate fauna represents an important vector for the plant colonization of the island and that epizoochorous plants have more chances to survive than endozoochorous. Additionally, the immigration of myrmechocorous taxa does not compensate the extinction rate (Figure 3, first three columns). The flora of the Island of Capo Passero hosts several taxa of high phytogeographic interest. The most interesting ones are briefly commented in the following paragraphs.

2.1.1. Aeluropus lagopoides (L.) Trin. ex Thwaites

This salt-tolerant geophyte usually grows in the gaps of chenopod scrub. Its distribution range includes the Mediterranean Islands, the Sahara and the Indian Subcontinent. Once widespread in Sicily, due to anthropogenic disturbance it currently occurs in few saltmarshes of western and southeastern Sicily. It features among the species assigned to Least Concern (LC) category according to IUCN criteria [40].

2.1.2. Cichorium spinosum L.

In Italy, this species is restricted to the SE-Sicilian coasts [31,41], which actually host the north-westernmost isolated population of this chamaephytic plant, quite common from sea level up to more than 1300 m a.s.l. in the East Mediterranean countries, but also widespread in Maltese Islands [42]. In the Island of Capo Passero, C. spinosum is localized in small areas along the rocky coast. Orsenigo et al. [40] reports this species as Endagered (EN) according to IUCN criteria.

2.1.3. Limonium hyblaeum Brullo

This salt-tolerant hemicryptophyte is considered to be endemic to SE-Sicily, where it is found only between Scoglitti and Capo Passero [43,44,45,46]. Quite surprisingly, it also occurs on the coastal rocky shores of Contrada Faraglione on the island Favignana (western Sicily), where it was already reported by Brullo [45] and was confirmed by S. Pasta and L. Scuderi (October 2004). As for the Island of Capo Passero, one single small population, represented by tiny individuals, was observed growing near the Spanish fortress. Although Orsenigo et al. [47] assigned the IUCN category Least Concern (LC) to this species, during recent times its extent of occurrence is rapidly shrinking, as the species is currently threatened with urban sprawl in most of its growing sites.

2.1.4. Limonium syracusanum Brullo

This chamaephyte is endemic to SE-Sicily [44,45]. More in detail, it is only found on the rocky cliffs along the Ionian coasts, between Penisola della Maddalena and Vendicari [41,43,48]. Never observed before on the islet, local population counts only a few individuals, localized in the extreme southern tip of the island. Orsenigo et al. [47] included this species among the Least Concern (LC).

2.1.5. Poterium spinosum L.

In Italy, this thorny shrub occurs in Calabria, Apulia and in one single locality of Sardinia [49], while SE Sicily hosts its main population, ranging from the sea level up to 600 m a.s.l.. Recently, Orsenigo et al. [40] confirmed the status Endangered (EN) for the Italian territory.

2.1.6. Senecio pygmaeus DC.

This therophyte is reported to be endemic to SE-Sicily, Maltese Archipelago and Lampedusa, growing near the coast, mostly in shallow soil pockets or along the sides of seasonal rock pools. Conti et al. [50] reported it as Endagered (EN) at the regional scale.

2.1.7. Spergularia heldreichii E. Simon & P. Monnier

The Island of Capo Passero hosts the only known population of this tiny therophyte in the whole Sicilian territory [38]. This salt-tolerant plant species, with a Mediterranean distribution, grows along the rocky coast, on small pools with sandy soil rich in salt, and subject to temporary flooding. Currently, no risk assessment has been carried out for this species.

2.2. Species Turnover, Population Trends and Landscape Evolution

Even if the list compiled by Albo presented a few identification pending issues (see notes in Appendix A for further details), the long time elapsed since his investigation on the Island of Capo Passero and the most recent ones raises some interesting considerations on the extent and direction of local species turnover and induced the authors to try to correlate these trends with local landscape dynamics. Several psammophilous species reported by Albo [30] have not been found anymore, such as Achillea maritima, Eryngium maritimum, Echinophora spinosa. This fact, together with the negative trend of some other coastal plants, such as Limonium hyblaeum and Calamagrostis arenaria subsp. arundinacea (=Ammophila arenaria) point out the severe effect of current disturbances (mostly linked to the seagull colony and seasonal tourism), to which have to be added also the sea currents and the wave motion that, in recent years, have determined the erosion of the sandy coast.
As already pointed out by Bergmeier and Dimopoulos [51], when the time lapse between floristic inventories is too large, like in our case, the available lists are often unable to ‘capture’ the ups and downs of local plant metapopulations. The risk of observation gaps is real: on the one hand, during the 30 years after the last census of Albo [31] as much as 48 taxa new to the islet have been recorded by Pirola [33] (8 additions), Galletti [35] (16 additions) and by Camatta et al. [36] (24 additions). On the other hand, many of these ‘new entries’ seem to have disappeared once again, as they have not been confirmed neither during the campaign carried out between 1997 and 2000 nor during last surveys (see Appendix A).
According to one of the key assumptions of island biogeography [52], colonization chances are higher—and consequently species turnover is more intense—on the small islets which are very close to large “species sources”: this is the case of the tiny Island of Capo Passero, only 300 metres from the largest and plant species-richest island of the Mediterranean. Hence, it is not surprising if a relevant proportion of the taxa observed by Albo does not occur anymore. For the same reason, several species found for the first time by Cristaudo and Maugeri [37] (e.g., Hypericum triquetrifolium, Lemna minor, Vicia bithynica) have not been confirmed during the last survey, when some other taxa (e.g., Arenaria serpyllifolia, Cachrys pungens, Plantago afra, Spergularia rubra and Vicia villosa) were recorded for the first time (see Appendix A).

2.3. Current Vegetation Units

The cluster analysis of all vegetation relevés shows two main branches and 12 groups of plots belonging to 10 phytosociological classes (Figure 4, Appendix B and Appendix C).
The first branch is characterized by scrub vegetation (cluster A1) and psammophilous communities together with the annual herbaceous communities (cluster A2); the second one (cluster B) includes the litho-halophilous vegetation linked to rocky coasts. The tallest vegetation found in the island is a maquis dominated by Chamaerops humilis and Pistacia lentiscus, referred to Pistacio lentisci-Chamaeropetum humilis (cluster 1, Table A2), which occurs in many other coastal sites of North-Western and South-Eastern Sicily [12,53,54,55]. This maquis is often replaced by a phrygana-like shrubland dominated by the thorny cushions of Poterium spinosum on dry rocky stands with a shallow layer of soil, often representing a degradation serial stage of the coastal maquis. According to Minissale et al. [48], this community may be referred to the association Chamaeropo-Sarcopoterietum spinosi (cluster 2, Table A2). The most degraded stage of the vegetation in the inner areas is represented by a community dominated by Stipellula capensis and Asteriscus aquaticus belonging to Stipo-Bupleuretalia semicompositi order (cluster 3, Table A3), which is linked to uncultivated fields. Along the limestone rocky coast, in the small depressions covered by a thin silty-sandy layer, an annual halo-nitrophilous vegetation grows referable to Parapholido incurvae-Catapodietum balearici, often mixed with halophilous perennial species, as Limonium sinuatum and Limonium virgatum, and some annual plants of the class Stipo-Trachynietea distachyae (cluster 4, Table A2). Psammophilous vegetation only occurs in the few dune remnants near the southwestern shore of the islet. Across the landward gradient, the first community is the Salsolo-Cakiletum maritimae (cluster 7, Table A4), which forms the first vegetation belt along the shoreline, colonizing the sandy surfaces subject to accumulation of organic matter stranded during storm surges. This species-poor community is formed by late-flowering, scattered therophytes, namely Cakile maritima and Salsola tragus. The coastal erosion and strong winds induced a loss of the dunal vegetation dominated by Calamagrostis arenaria subsp. arundinacea (Ammophiletea), which normally occurs on well-developed shifting dunes. The floristic remnants include other psammophytes, such as Pancratium maritimum, Scolymus hispanicus and Euphorbia paralias (cluster 6, Table A4). Probably also because of the disappearance of Thynopyrum junceum, the latter species tends to become dominant on the embryonic dunes closer to the sea. Inwards, the retrodunal sand hosts a community dominated by Centaurea sphaerocephala, Ononis natrix subsp. ramosissima and Euphorbia terracina. This plant community can be referred to the Centaureo sphaerocephalae-Ononidetum ramosissimae (cluster 5, Table A4), growing on relatively stable and compact sandy soils [56]. The gaps among the above-mentioned perennial herbs and shrubs are covered by ephemeral psammophilous swards dominated by Silene nicaensis and Senecio coronopifolius belonging to Vulpietalia order. However, most of the island’s coasts are charaterized by rock outcrops, colonized by communities belonging to the class Crithmo-Staticetea. Among these, the most widespread is the Crithmo maritimi-Limonietum virgati (cluster 10, Table A5), which is dominated by Limonium virgatum and Crithmum maritimum, and few other species, such as L. sinuatum and Cichorium spinosum. Conversely, the Limonietum hyblaei, already reported for the adjacent coast by Bartolo et al. [41], covers a very restricted area of the island (cluster 8, Table A5). These communities are often replaced by nuclei with Limonium virgatum and L. sinuatum, as a consequence of the anthropogenic disturbance. The brackish rock pools amidst the Crithmo-Staticetea vegetation and the seasonally inundated sediments behind the cliffs are home to a vegetation characterized by Arthrocaulon meridionalis, a succulent chenopod scrub usually linked to seasonally inundated salt marshes, and Limonium virgatum. This vegetation (cluster 11, Table A6) is quite similar to the Limonio virgati-Arthrocnemetum macrostachyi, an association belonging to the class Salicornietea fruticosae, described by Biondi et al. [57] from southern Apulia and already reported for Sicily by Minissale and Sciandrello [20]. Furthermore, on the island, in the hyper-nitrified areas, rarely subject to submersion, a vegetation dominated by Suaeda vera grows, with few other halophilous species, such as Halimione portulacoides, Arthrocaulon meridionalis, Aeluropus lagopoides, Limonium virgatum (cluster 12, Table A6). This halo-subnitrophilous vegetation is referable to Halimiono portulacoidis-Suaedetum verae, an association belonging to Suaedion verae, alliance of Salicornietea fruticosae [58]. The thin layer of sediments accumulating on limestones with horizontal attitude, intensively subject to seabird droppings and to human seasonal trampling, are colonized by a halo-nitrophilous annual community dominated by Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum and Beta maritima, belonging to Spergulario bocconei-Mesembryanthemetum nodiflori (cluster 9, Table A5), which usually forms a dense carpet covering large surfaces. In addition, to the plant communities described above, some other monophytic or floristically poor vegetation units have been observed in the island. In particular, the small temporary basins amidst the clearings of shrub vegetation are colonized by an ephemeral vegetation with Polypogon subspathaceus, while the coastal rocky crevices are characterized by an annual sub-halophilous community dominated by Senecio pygmaeus. Inland disturbed stands, with slightly humid soils, are colonized by Arundo donax, probably introduced on the island because its stems were, until a recent past, a precious material for construction, basketry and stakeing. Inland sandy soils, which were cultivated in the past, are colonized by Saccharum biflorum, probably also introduced by man as a windbreak. Finally, the banks of a small artificial basin for rainwater collection are colonized by Typha domingensis.

2.4. Changes Affecting Local Vegetation Patterns over Last Ha Century

Interesting clues on the recent evolution of the landscape are given by the comparison between the vegetation map of Pirola [34] with a new one based on aerial photographs dating back to 2019 (Table 1, Figure 5).
Thanks to repeated cross-checks supported by field surveys, the photointerpretation of the aerial photos enabled identifying 12 vegetation types, 10 of which represent habitats of community interest according to the EU ‘Habitats’ Directive 92/43 (Figure A1 and Figure A2).
The comparison of the two maps shows no significant differences in the area occupied by the vegetation. However, some variation in the area of occupancy of some vegetation units has been detected (Table 1). More in detail, the data show a strong shrinking of the vegetation of shifting dunes (Medicagini marinae-Ammophiletum arenarii) which decreased from 3 ha (8.7%) in 1965 to 0.05 ha (0.1%) in 2019, as well as of the Ononis ramosissima community (Centaureo-Ononidetum ramosissimae), which decreased from 3.6 ha (10%) to 1.8 (5.0%) ha. The cover of the most common plant community of the island, i.e., the dwarf maquis with Chamaerops humilis, has undergone a slight reduction, from 12.9 ha (36.0%) to 11.0 ha (31.0%). Inversely, the Poterium spinosum garrigue, together with the Chamaerops humilis maquis mixed with Poterium spinosum garrigue, increased from 2.4 ha (6.7%) to 5 ha (14.3%), as well as the dry grasslands (Stipo-Trachynietea distachyae) from 0.6 ha (1.7%) to 3.5 ha (10%).
The observed strong reduction in the dune system has been recorded in many other places along the Mediterranean coast [59,60,61,62,63]. These results highlight that human pressure directly and indirectly triggered the disruption of coastal dune systems, hugely affecting both the structure and the function of the local psammophilous plant communities. Therefore, the study case of Capo Passero Island, despite the modest size of the surveyed area, is a very representative example of how, within a few decades, seasonal trampling by tourists can destroy a dune system with direct negative consequences on the species and the communites/habitats linked to sandy shores. For the same reasons, some psammophilous species, recorded by Albo [30], such as Achillea maritima, Eryngium maritimum and Echinophora spinosa, have totally disappeared. This is in contrast to the conditions observed by Pirola [33], who depicted a vegetation transect (North–South section) indicating a well-preserved dune system in the southern part of the island.

3. Materials and Methods

3.1. Study Area

The Island of Capo Passero (latitude: 36°41′13″ N; longitude: 15°08′56″ E) has a surface of less than 36 ha and is located in front of the little town of Portopalo di Capo Passero, which corresponds to the south-easternmost corner of Sicily. The highest point of the island is 21 m. a.s.l., and currently hosts a lighthouse (Figure 6).
Despite its small size, the islet is characterized by many different types of sediments and rock outcrops [64,65]. From the most recent to the oldest one, these are: (1) recent sands and coastal dunes (Holocene), (2) limestones with Nummulites (Eocene) in the eastern part of the islet, (3) calcirudites with Rudistae (Upper Cretaceous) on northern sea cliffs and (4) base-rich vulcanites (Upper Cretaceous) along the eastern side.
The topography of the sea channel that separates the islet from Capo Passero, today c. 2.5 m in depth and 300 m in width, has been subject to continuous changes due to intense marine currents [66]. A long list of reports made by military engineers, maps, drawings, geographic treatises, sailor books testifie complex and long-lasting alternation of phases of closing and opening of this channel, partly driven by sea currents. After being isolated for about two centuries, around the mid 18th century the Island of Capo Passero was connected to the mainland by a thick sandy strip. Since then, the islet has been uninterruptedly separated from Sicily, as confirmed by numerous sources [29].
In order to prevent the incursions of pirates and to protect the south-eastern Sicilian coasts against them, the Spanish Government decided to build a fortress on the islet, whose construction was finished in 1635 [67]. Until mid 20th century, the islet was frequently visited by fishermen and people collecting the leaves of dwarf palms, whose fibers were used to produce several items (baskets, fans, hats, ropes, etc.). Nowadays, the Island of Capo Passero is uninhabited but it is home to a very large colony of yellow-legged seagulls (Larus michahellis Naumann), which induced a sharp increase in soil nitrogen content, significantly modifying local flora and vegetation as elsewhere in the Mediterranean [13].
Local climate is typically Mediterranean; based on the data from the nearby thermo-pluviometric station of Cozzo Spadaro (just 2.5 km from the study area), the mean annual temperature is 18.5 °C, while the mean annual precipitation, concentrated over the autumn and winter seasons, is 381 mm. According to the bioclimatic classification proposed by Rivas-Martiínez et al. [68,69,70], the investigated territory should be referred to the Mediterranean pluviseasonal oceanic bioclimate, with low thermomediterranean thermotype and dry ombrotype [71].

3.2. Data Sets and Data Processing

The collected plant specimens, were pressed in a plant press, dried on a plant dryer and stored in the Herbarium of the University of Catania (CAT). Specimens were identified following the second edition of the Flora d’Italia [72,73,74,75]. The floras by Fiori and Paoletti [76] and Fiori [77] were consulted as well, to ensure the best possibile interpretation of the plant names adopted in the lists published by Albo [30,31].
The family and the scientific name according to the Portal to the Flora of Italy [78] were assigned to each taxon, along with the following traits, extracted from the second edition of Flora d’Italia [72,73,74,75]: life form, chorotype, Ellenberg indicator values, pollination and seed dispersal strategies. The Pearson’s χ2 test was used to compare some of the traits with those of the Sicilian flora and to get some clues on the variations occurred between the Albo floristic surveys [30,31] and the current vascular flora of the Island of Capo Passero. Statistical analyses were performed using R 4.0.3 [79] and the ggplot2 package [80] for data visualization.
The vegetation was sampled according to the phytosociological method [81]. The total amount of the vegetation data consisted of 202 phytosociological relevés, 191 of them issuing from recent field surveys carried out by the authors and 11 taken from literature [33]. For the numerical vegetation classification, the original Braun-Blanquet’s sampling scale was transformed into ordinal scale according to van der Maarel [82] and a hierarchical clustering was performed by means of the PC-ORD 6 software. Clusters were interpreted basing on the syntaxonomic scheme by Mucina et al. [83] and other phytosociological papers from Sicily [10]. The detected vegetation units were then correlated to habitats of community interest following the Italian Interpretation Manual for the Habitats of Directive 92/43/EEC [84].
The current area of occupancy and distribution of the vegetation units was mapped using ArcGis 10.6 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA). In order to perform a diachronic comparison between the past [34] and the current vegetation patterns, the interpretation of aerial images taken in 2019 (source: Google Earth) was validated by means of repeated field surveys.

4. Conclusions

This study has shown how the islet of Capo Passero has great floristic peculiarities and at the same time considerable vulnerability that can cause extinctions/decline of populations and reduction/alterations of habitats under stress. For this reason, it is important to plan and implement targeted conservation actions similar to what has been proposed for other small Mediterranean islands [4,85]. Already 50 years ago, considering the botanical interest of the Island of Capo Passero, Pirola [86] recommended its strict protection. The “Isola di Capo Passero” nature reserve was established on 16 May 1995 by decree of the Sicilian Regional Government. However, in 1998, after a long legal dispute following an appeal against the reserve made by the private owner of the island, the TAR (Regional Administrative Tribunal) canceled the protected area. Fortunately, the conservation measures of the Habitats Directive (EU 92/43) have allowed so far guaranteeing lasting protection of the island’s naturalistic values. In fact, after the SCI proposal dating back to 1995 (ITA090001 “Isola di Capo Passero”), this Natura 2000 site was promoted as a Special Conservation Area (SAC) in 2017. Unfortunately, the lack of an encharged management body for this Natura 2000 site does not allow the implementation of active conservation and management policies (e.g., the regulation of visitors’ access by creating of dedicated paths for seasonal tourists, who represent a serious threat for all the coastal habitats —especially 1210, 2120 and 2210—due to trampling and other kinds of disturbance, the control/eradication of the few occurring alien vascular plant species. This is a problem in common with all the Sicilian Natura 2000 sites which do not fall within the protected areas whose management is regulated by regional laws (e.g., nature reserves or regional parks) and is perfomed by public bodies and private NGOs.
The peculiar interest of this site for botanists is well documented since centuries (Pasta, submitted) and its paramount importance until present times its confirmed by recent inclusion among the Italian Important Plant Areas (IPA SIC17) according to Blasi et al. [87]. Moreover, the island and the nearby coast have an exceptional geological and paleontological interest, highlighted since the mid 19th century, for its fossil-rich (rudists, corals) outcropping limestones dating back to Cretaceous [64]. The historical and cultural sites by the island’s castle and the Roman remains on the adjacent coast are no less important [88]. Unfortunately, all these natural and historical-cultural values are not protected adequately by local institutions, which instead have recently promoted some actions aiming at consolidating the rocky coast with concrete, damaging the coastal communities of the mainland promontory and deliberately introducing highly invasive alien plants such as Carpobrotus spp. This plant should be eradicated or monitored to avoid its introduction on the islet. Therefore, the authors suggest extending the limits of the SAC, so to include the Cichorium spinosum populations located in the promontory of Capo Passero (Figure 6). This regionally rare and highly localized species characterizes two different habitats of community interest, i.e., the “Vegetated sea cliffs of the Mediterranean coasts with endemic spp.” (Habitat code: 1240) and the “Sarcopoterium spinosum phryganas” (Habitat code: 5420). The enlargement of the Natura 2000 site, the designation of a qualified management body and the acquisition of the island as public ownership could guarantee a better management of this precious territory and the preservation not only of its naturalistic values but also the cultural heritage as a whole which originated, as in other Mediterranean sites, from with the harmonious balance between those values [89]. Although much still needs to be done, our map of plant communities (Figure 5) is a solid basis for the management and monitoring of the habitats to be protected over time.
This paper is addressed to all who believe that the site of Capo Passero deserves to be adequately managed and preserved, so that future generations will continue to appreciate its natural highlights, studied, described and appreciated since centuries by scientists, poets, historians, painters, travellers and geographers from all over Europe.

Author Contributions

S.S. conceived the project and organized the research group and developed the first theoretical framework; S.S., A.C., and P.M. carried out the field work; S.S., S.P., R.G., and A.C. contributed to setting the theoretical framework and data processing; S.S., G.G.d.G., S.P., G.T., and S.C. prepared and revised the data; S.S., R.G., and G.T. processed the data and prepared the graphical outputs; S.S., G.T., S.C., and A.C. prepared the first draft of the manuscript, with substantial inputs from S.P. and R.G.; A.C. funding acquisition. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This work was financially supported by the SiMaSeed Project “Protecting biodiversity in Sicily Malta Natura 2000 sites through Seed Banks and population reinforcement.” Programme INTERREG V-A Italia-Malta 2014-2020. Priority Axis III, Specific Objective 3.1, Project code C1-3.1-16.

Data Availability Statement

All data presented in the manuscript are available in the form of tables and figures in the manuscript.

Acknowledgments

We thank the INTERREG V-A Italia-Malta 2014-2020 programme for supporting this study on the SAC ITA090001 ‘Isola di Capo Passero’, as a very important site of the Natura 2000 Network. The study allowed to highlight several biodiversity values of both plants and habitats of community interest the site shares with the Maltese Islands.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Appendix A

Table A1. Species list of the vascular plants recorded from the Island of Capo Passero (SE Sicily). Alien species are marked in red. Abbreviations of Ellenberg indicator values: L—light conditions, T—temperature, C—continentality, U soil moisture, R soil reaction, N—soil nutrients. Abbreviations of pollination strategies: AP—anemophily, BP—ballistic, CG—cleistogamy, EP—enthomophily, HP—hydrophily. Abbreviations of seed dispersal strategies: AC—anemochory, AUC1—ballistic autochory, AUC2—hygronastic autochory, BC—barochory, HC—hydrochory, ZC1—epizoochory, ZC2—endozoochory, and ZC3—myrmecochory.
Table A1. Species list of the vascular plants recorded from the Island of Capo Passero (SE Sicily). Alien species are marked in red. Abbreviations of Ellenberg indicator values: L—light conditions, T—temperature, C—continentality, U soil moisture, R soil reaction, N—soil nutrients. Abbreviations of pollination strategies: AP—anemophily, BP—ballistic, CG—cleistogamy, EP—enthomophily, HP—hydrophily. Abbreviations of seed dispersal strategies: AC—anemochory, AUC1—ballistic autochory, AUC2—hygronastic autochory, BC—barochory, HC—hydrochory, ZC1—epizoochory, ZC2—endozoochory, and ZC3—myrmecochory.
SpeciesFamilyLife FormChorotypeThis PaperAlbo (1919; 1957) * Pirola (1959)Galletti (1988) Camatta et al. (1990) **Cristaudo and Maugeri (2005)LTCURNSPollination Strategies - Seed Dispersal Strategies
1Achillea maritima (L.) Ehrend. & Y.P.Guo subsp. maritimaAsteraceaeCh suffrMedit.-Atl. 11 111041312EP − AC
2Aeluropus lagopoides (L.) Trin. ex ThwaitesPoaceaeG rhizMedit.-Turan.1 1 1111234813AP − AC
3Agave americana L. subsp. americanaAsparagaceaeP caespN-Americ.1 1 191022X20EP − AC + AUC1
4Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. subsp. ivaLamiaceaeCh suffrSteno-Medit.11 18843720EP − AC + ZC3
5Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. subsp. pseudoiva (DC.) Briq.LamiaceaeCh suffrSteno-Medit.1 18843720EP − AC + ZC3
7Allium ampeloprasum L.AmaryllidaceaeG bulbSE-Europ.1 17753650EP − AUC1
6Allium nigrum L. AmaryllidaceaeG bulbSteno-Medit. 1 10943640EP − AUC1
8Allium roseum L. subsp. roseumAmaryllidaceaeG bulbSteno-Medit.1 18843650EP − AUC1
9Allium subhirsutum L. subsp. subhirsutumAmaryllidaceaeG bulbW-Medit. 1 8942420EP − AUC1
10Andropogon distachyos L.PoaceaeH caespPaleotrop.1 111742820AP − AC
11Andryala integrifolia L.AsteraceaeT scapMedit.-Atl. 1 18932210EP − AC
12Anisantha fasciculata (C.Presl) Nevski subsp. fasciculataPoaceaeT scapS-Medit.1 1111152620AP − AUC2
13Anisantha madritensis (L.) Nevski subsp. madritensisPoaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 18753X10AP − AUC2
14Anisantha rigida (Roth) Hyl.PoaceaeT scapPaleosubtrop.1 18854650AP − AUC2
15Anthemis secundiramea Biv.AsteraceaeT scapS-Medit.1 1111151310EP − AC
16Anthoxanthum ovatum Lag.PoaceaeT scapW-Medit. 1 7843320AP − AUC2
17Arenaria leptoclados (Rchb.) Guss. subsp. leptocladosCaryophyllaceaeT scapPaleotemp.111 19952310EP − AC + ZC3
18Arenaria serpyllifolia L. subsp. serpyllifoliaCaryophyllaceaeT scapSubcosmop.1 95X4XX0EP − AC + ZC3
19Arisarum vulgare O.Targ.Tozz. subsp. vulgareAraceaeG rhizSteno-Medit.11 1 16844440EP − ZC2
20Arthrocaulon meridionalis Es.Ramírez, Rufo, Sánchez Mata, V.FuenteChenopodiaceaeCh succSteno-Medit.1111 111948973AP − AC
21Arundo donax L.PoaceaeG rhizSubcosmop. 18955560AP − AC
22Asparagus acutifolius L.AsparagaceaeG rhizSteno-Medit.1111 16942550AP + EP − ZC2
23Asphodelus fistulosus L.AsparagaceaeH scapPaleosubtrop.1 111852420EP − AUC1
24Asphodelus ramosus L. subsp. ramosusAsphodelaceaeG rhizSteno-Medit.11 11110942350EP − AUC1
25Asteriscus aquaticus (L.) Less.AsteraceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1111 110947770EP − AC + HC
26Astragalus boeticus L.FabaceaeT scapS-Medit.11 1111151310EP − BC + AUC1
27Atractylis cancellata L.AsteraceaeT scapS-Medit.1 111852620EP − AC
28Avellinia festucoides (Link) Valdés & H.ScholzPoaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 110942510AP − AC
29Avena barbata Pott ex LinkPoaceaeT scapMedit.-Turan.111 18853720AP − AUC2
30Avena sterilis L. subsp. sterilisPoaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 18953640AP − AUC2
31Barlia robertiana (Loisel.) GreuterOrchidaceaeG bulbSteno-Medit.1 17943620EP − AC
32Bellardia trixago (L.) All.OrchidaceaeT scapWide-Medit.11 18853330EP − AUC1
33Bellis annua L. subsp. annuaAsteraceaeT scapW-Medit.1 16947220EP − AC
34Bellis sylvestris CirilloAsteraceaeH rosSteno-Medit.1 15843330EP − AC
35Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang.ChenopodiaceaeH scapWide-Medit.11 1 110756651AP − AC
36Blackstonia perfoliata (L.) Huds.GentianaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 1875X940EP − AUC1
37Borago officinalis L.BoraginaceaeT scapWide-Medit.11 17853550EP − ZC3
38Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P.Beauv.PoaceaeT scapMedit.-Turan.1 1110931320AP − AC
39Brachypodium retusum (Pers.) P.Beauv.PoaceaeH caespW-Medit.1 1111032520AP − AUC2
40Briza maxima L.PoaceaeT scapPaleosubtrop.11 1181052410AP − AC
41Bromus hordeaceus L. subsp. hordeaceusPoaceaeT scapSubcosmop.111 765XXX0AP − AUC2
42Bromus scoparius L.PoaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 11942620AP − AUC2
43Cachrys libanotis L.ApiaceaeH scapW-Medit.11 111953720EP − BC
44Cachrys pungens Jan ex Guss.ApiaceaeH scapSW-Medit.1 111153720EP − BC
45Cachrys sicula L.ApiaceaeH scapW-Medit.1 1 111042520EP − BC
46Cakile maritima Scop. subsp. maritimaApiaceaeT scapMedit.-Atl.11 1 19826X83EP − AC + HC
47Calamagrostis arenaria (L.) Roth subsp. arundinacea (Husn.) Banfi, Galasso & BartolucciPoaceaeG rhizWide-Medit.1111116555550AP − AC
48Calendula arvensis (Vaill.) L.AsteraceaeT scapWide-Medit.11 17853850EP − AC + BC + ZC
49Campanula erinus L.CampanulaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.11 17842X10EP − AC
50Capparis orientalis Veill.CapparaceaeNPSteno-Medit.11 1 191052512AP + EP − ZC2 + ZC3
51Carduus argyroa Biv.AsteraceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 17843770EP − AC
52Carex divisa Huds.CyperaceaeG rhizMedit.-Atl.1 1 18823530AP − AC
53Carex flacca Schreb. subsp. erythrostachys (Hoppe) HolubCyperaceaeG rhizEurop.1 175568X0AP − ZC
54Carlina corymbosa L.AsteraceaeH scapSteno-Medit.1 6X42X40EP − AC
55Carlina gummifera (L.) Less.AsteraceaeH rosS-Medit.1 11111151710EP − AC
56Carlina hispanica Lam. subsp. globosa (Arcang.) Meusel & KästnerAsteraceaeH scapSteno-Medit.1 11XXXXXXXEP − AC
57Carlina lanata L.AsteraceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 17743620EP − AC
58Carlina sicula Ten. subsp. siculaAsteraceaeH scapEndem. Ital. 1111131210EP − AC
59Carthamus lanatus L.AsteraceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 1110853560EP − AC
60Catapodium balearicum (Willk.) H.ScholzPoaceaeT scapMedit.-Atl.111111111031X12AP − AC
61Catapodium pauciflorum (Merino) Brullo, Giusso, Miniss. & Spamp.PoaceaeT scapMedit.-Atl.1 XXXXXXXAP − AC
62Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E.Hubb. subsp. rigidumPoaceaeT scapWide-Medit.111 18852540AP − AC
63Centaurea melitensis L.AsteraceaeT scapPantrop.11 1101252X50EP − AC + ZC3
64Centaurea sphaerocephala L. subsp. sphaerocephalaAsteraceaeH scapW-Medit.1 11 1111041X10EP − AC + ZC3
65Centaurium erythraea Rafn subsp. erythraeaGentianaceaeH biennEurasiat. 1 86556X0EP − AC
66Centaurium pulchellum (Sw.) Druce subsp. pulchellumGentianaceaeT scapPaleotemp.1 1 19677930EP − AC
67Centaurium tenuiflorum (Hoffmanns. and Link) Fritsch subsp. tenuiflorumGentianaceaeT scapPaleotemp.11 19857720EP − AC
68Cerastium glomeratum Thuill.GentianaceaeT scapSubcosmop. 1 7X55550EP − AC + ZC3
70Cerastium semidecandrum L.CaryophyllaceaeT scapCosmop.1 18754XX0EP − AC + ZC3
71Cerinthe major L. subsp. majorBoraginaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.11 17844590EP − BC
72Chamaerops humilis L.ArecaceaeNPW-Medit.111111111031410AP + EP − BC + ZC
73Charybdis pancration (Steinh.) SpetaAsparagaceaeG bulbSteno-Medit.1 11111103142XEP − AUC1
74Chenopodiastrum murale (L.) S.Fuentes, Uotila & BorschChenopodiaceaeT scapSubcosmop.1 18754X90AP − AC
75Chenopodium album L. subsp. albumChenopodiaceaeT scapSubcosmop.1 17754570AP − AC
76Cichorium spinosum L.AsteraceaeCh suffrSteno-Medit.111111121031510EP − AC + HC1
77Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze subsp. nepetaLamiaceaeH scapSteno-Medit.1 15753930EP − AC
78Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze subsp. spruneri (Boiss.) Bartolucci & F.ContiLamiaceaeH scapOrof. SE-Europ. 1 5753930EP − AC
79Convolvulus althaeoides L.ConvolvulaceaeH scandW-Medit.1 18943520EP − BC
80Convolvulus elegantissimus Mill.ConvolvulaceaeH scandE-Medit. 1 81053520EP − BC
81Crassula tillaea Lest.-Garl.CrassulaceaeT scapMedit.-Atl.1 1XXXXXXXEP − AC
82Crithmum maritimum L.ApiaceaeCh suffrWide-Medit.1111 111821X13EP − AC
83Crocus longiflorus Raf.IridaceaeG bulbSubendem. 1 9842620EP − AUC1 + ZC3
84Cuscuta planiflora Ten.ConvolvulaceaeT parWide-Medit.1 1875XXX0EP − AC + ZC
85Cutandia maritima (L.) Benth. ex BarbeyPoaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.111 1111031X12AP − AC
86Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. cardunculusAsteraceaeH scapSteno-Medit.11 1 110945630EP − AC
87Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.PoaceaeG rhizCosmop.1 118854X40AP − AC
88Cynoglossum cheirifolium L.BoraginaceaeH biennSteno-Medit. 1 11943770EP − ZC1
89Cynoglossum clandestinum Desf.BoraginaceaeH scapW-Medit. 1 11953770EP − ZC1
90Cynoglossum creticum Mill.BoraginaceaeH biennWide-Medit.11 111953X70EP − ZC1
91Cytisus infestus (C.Presl) Guss. subsp. infestusFabaceaeP caespSteno-Medit.1 1XXXXXXXEP − BC + AUC1
92Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. glomerataPoaceaeH caespPaleotemp. 1 7654560AP − AC
93Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. hispanica (Roth) NymanPoaceaeH caespSteno-Medit.1 117654561AP − AC
94Daucus carota L. subsp. carotaApiaceaeH biennCosmop. 1 18654540EP − AC + ZC1
95Daucus pumilus (L.) Hoffmanns. & LinkApiaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1111 1111042211EP − AC + ZC1
96Delphinium halteratum Sm. subsp. halteratumRanunculaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 18943420EP − AC
97Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter subsp. viscosaAsteraceaeH scapWide-Medit.1 111853790EP − AC
98Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich.CucurbitaceaeT scapWide-Medit.11 1 17853530EP − AUC1
99Echinophora spinosa L.ApiaceaeH scapWide-Medit. 11 12854712EP − AC
100Echium arenarium Guss.BoraginaceaeH biennSteno-Medit.11 1111042310EP − AC + BC
101Echium italicum L. subsp. siculum (Lacaita) Greuter & BurdetBoraginaceaeH biennEndem. Sic.1 110853340EP − AC + BC
102Echium parviflorum MoenchBoraginaceaeH biennSteno-Medit.11 1111042310EP − AC + BC
103Echium plantagineum L. BoraginaceaeH biennWide-Medit. 11 110853550EP − AC + BC
104Erigeron bonariensis L.AsteraceaeT scapAmeric.1 18853X70EP − AC
105Erodium alnifolium Guss.GeraniaceaeT scapW-Medit. 1 7843530EP − BC
106Erodium chium (L.) Willd.GeraniaceaeH scapWide-Medit. 1 11952520EP − BC
107Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Hér.GeraniaceaeT caespSubcosmop.1 18753530EP − ZC1 + AUC1 + AUC2
108Erodium laciniatum (Cav.) Willd. subsp. laciniatumGeraniaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.111 111942721EP − BC
109Erodium malacoides (L.) L’Hér. subsp. malacoidesGeraniaceaeH biennW-Medit.11 110942520EP − BC
110Ervum tetraspermum L.FabaceaeT scapCosmop.1 16555340EP − BC + AUC1
111Eryngium campestre L.ApiaceaeH scapWide-Medit.1 19753830EP − AC
112Eryngium maritimum L.ApiaceaeG rhizMedit.-Atl. 1 11834711EP − AC + BC
113Euphorbia exigua L. subsp. exiguaEuphorbiaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 110952610EP − AUC1 + ZC3
114Euphorbia helioscopia L. subsp. helioscopiaEuphorbiaceaeT scapCosmop.1 19753560EP − AUC1 + ZC3
115Euphorbia paralias L.EuphorbiaceaeCh frutMedit.-Atl.1111 111851X12EP − AUC1 + ZC3
116Euphorbia peplis L.EuphorbiaceaeT reptWide-Medit.1 1 111721X12EP − AUC1 + ZC3
117Euphorbia peplus L.EuphorbiaceaeT scapCosmop. 11 16744570EP − AUC1 + ZC3
118Euphorbia terracina L.EuphorbiaceaeH scapSteno-Medit.11 1 111942320EP − AUC1 + ZC3
120Festuca fasciculata Forssk.PoaceaeT caespMedit.-Atl.111 11111031X11AP − AC
121Festuca myuros L.PoaceaeT scapSubcosmop.1 8952620AP − AC
122Filago germanica (L.) Huds.AsteraceaeT scapPaleotemp. 11 8753420EP − AC
123Filago pygmaea L.AsteraceaeT reptSteno-Medit.111 1111941310EP − AC
124Filago pyramidata L.AsteraceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 18753410EP − AC
125Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. piperitum (Ucria) Bég.ApiaceaeH scapS-Medit. 1 9853770EP − AC + BC
126Frankenia hirsuta L.FrankeniaceaeCh suffrSteno-Medit.-African11 1 1111041713EP − AUC1
127Frankenia pulverulenta L. subsp. pulverulentaFrankeniaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.-Asiatic1 111941712EP − AUC1
128Fumaria flabellata Gasp.PapaveraceaeT scapSteno-Medit.11 17942520EP − AC + ZC3
129Galactites tomentosus MoenchAsteraceaeH biennSteno-Medit.111 118843X70EP − AC
130Galium murale (L.) All.RubiaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.11 110942X10AP + EP − AC
131Galium verrucosum Huds. subsp. verrucosumRubiaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.11 111942X10AP + EP − AC + ZC1
132Gastridium ventricosum (Gouan) Schinz & Thell.PoaceaeT scapMedit.-Atl.1 18942420AP − AC
133Geranium dissectum L.GeraniaceaeT scapCosmop.1 17852520EP − AUC1
134Geranium molle L.GeraniaceaeH biennSubcosmop.11 17653540EP − AUC1
135Gladiolus italicus Mill.IridaceaeG bulbWide-Medit.11 19953530EP − AUC1 + ZC3
136Glaucium flavum CrantzPapaveraceaeH scapWide-Medit.11 11111951411EP − AUC1
137Halimione portulacoides (L.) AellenChenopodiaceaeCh frutCircumbor.1 1 111942673AP − AC
138Hedypnois rhagadioloides (L.) F.W.SchmidtAsteraceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 111943720EP − AC + BC
139Heliotropium europaeum L.HeliotropiaceaeT scapMedit.-Turan.11 110853721EP − AC + BC
140Herniaria glabra L. subsp. glabraCaryophyllaceaeT scapPaleotemp. 1 9554220EP − AC
141Herniaria hirsuta L. subsp. hirsutaCaryophyllaceaeH caespPaleotemp. 1 9654220EP − AC
142Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagr.-Foss. subsp. incanaBrassicaceaeH scapMedit.-Atl.11 19953320EP − AC
143Hordeum bulbosum L.PoaceaeH caespPaleosubtrop. 1 81054540AP − AUC2
144Hordeum murinum L. subsp. leporinum (Link) Arcang.PoaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 18845530AP − AUC2
145Hordeum murinum L. subsp. murinumPoaceaeT scapCircumbor. 1 8845530AP − AUC2
146Hyoscyamus albus L.SolanaceaeH biennWide-Medit.11 1 18852X90EP − AC
147Hyoseris scabra L.AsteraceaeT rosSteno-Medit.111 111931710EP − AC
148Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf subsp. hirtaPoaceaeH caespPaleotrop.1 11111252730AP − AC
149Hypericum perfoliatum L.HypericaceaeH scapSteno-Medit.1 1 16844340EP − AC + ZC
150Hypericum perforatum L. subsp. perforatumHypericaceaeH caespCosmop. 11 1 786XXX0EP − AC + ZC
151Hypericum triquetrifolium TurraHypericaceaeH scapE-Medit. 18853720EP − AC + ZC
152Hypochaeris achyrophorus L.AsteraceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 1 110942X20EP − AC
153Juncus acutus L. subsp. acutusJuncaceaeH caespWide-Medit.11 111838833AP − AC
154Juno planifolia (Mill.) Asch.IridaceaeG bulbS-Medit.1 18833420EP − AUC1 + ZC3
155Koeleria splendens C.Presl **PoaceaeH caespOrof. S-Europ. 1 11763710AP − AC
156Lagurus ovatus L. subsp. nanus (Guss.) MesseriPoaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 18953X21AP − AC
157Lagurus ovatus L. subsp. ovatusPoaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1111 18953X21AP − AC
158Lathyrus clymenum L.FabaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.11 7844330EP − BC
159Lemna minor L.AraceaeI natSubcosmop. 17X512XX0HP + EP − HC1
160Limbarda crithmoides (L.) Dumort. subsp. longifolia (Arcang.) GreuterAsteraceaeCh suffrMedit.-Atl.1 111847953EP − AC
161Limonium hyblaeum Brullo *PlumbaginaceaeH rosEndem. Sic.1 1 1XXXXXXXEP − AC
162Limonium narbonense Mill.PlumbaginaceaeH rosWide-Medit.1 111756753EP − AC
163Limonium sinuatum (L.) Mill.PlumbaginaceaeH scapS-Medit.1111 1111141721EP − AC
164Limonium syracusanum Brullo *PlumbaginaceaeCh sufrrEndem. Sic. 1 XXXXXXXEP − AC
165Limonium virgatum (Willd.) Fourr.PlumbaginaceaeH rosWide-Medit.1111 19931913EP − AC
166Linaria reflexa (L.) Desf. subsp. reflexaPlantaginaceaeT reptSW-Medit.1 17853530EP − AC
167Linum strictum L.LinaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 111942520EP − AC + ZC
168Linum trigynum L.LinaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 110952320EP − AC + ZC
169Lithospermum officinale L.BoraginaceaeH scapEurosiber. 1 6X5X860EP − BC + ZC
170Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.BrassicaceaeH scapSteno-Medit.11 1118942X10EP − AC
171Logfia gallica (L.) Cosson & Germ.AsteraceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 110852310EP − AC
172Loncomelos narbonensis (L.) Raf.AsparagaceaeG bulbWide-Medit.11 18754640EP − AUC1 + ZC3
173Lotus creticus L.FabaceaeCh suffrSteno-Medit.111111111031X12EP − BC
174Lotus cytisoides L.FabaceaeCh suffrSteno-Medit.1 1111031X12EP − BC
175Lotus edulis L.FabaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.11 119842530EP − BC
176Lotus ornithopodioides L.FabaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 110942110EP − BC
177Lotus tetragonolobus L.FabaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 18646960EP − BC
178Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U. Manns & Anderb. subsp. arvensisPrimulaceaeT reptWide-Medit.1 16655X60EP − AUC1
179Lysimachia foemina (Mill.) U. Manns & Anderb.PrimulaceaeT reptSubcosmop. 1 8754950EP − AUC1
180Lythrum hyssopifolia L.LythraceaeT scapSubcosmop.1 18757340EP − AC + HC + ZC
181Malva cretica Cav. subsp. creticaMalvaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 17744780EP − AC + BC
182Malva sylvestris L.MalvaceaeH scapSubcosmop.1 18644X80EP − AC + BC
183Mandragora autumnalis Bertol.SolanaceaeH rosSteno-Medit.11 1 17942730EP − ZC2
184Marrubium vulgare L.LamiaceaeH scapCosmop.11 1 19853880EP − AC + ZC
185Matthiola tricuspidata (L.) R.Br.BrassicaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 1 1111041311EP − AC
186Medicago littoralis Rohde ex Loisel.FabaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 1 1111952X20EP − ZC1
187Medicago minima (L.) L.FabaceaeT scapWide-Medit.-Asiatic1 1110753810EP − ZC1
188Medicago orbicularis (L.) Bartal.FabaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 117853440EP − BC
189Medicago polymorpha L.FabaceaeT scapSubcosmop.1 19952X20EP − ZC1
190Medicago truncatula Gaertn.FabaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 111841X11EP − ZC1
191Melica ciliata L. subsp. ciliataPoaceaeH caespWide-Medit. 1 8752720AP − AC + ZC3
192Melica ciliata L. subsp. magnolii (Godr. & Gren.) K.Richt.PoaceaeH caespMedit.-Turan.11 18752720AP − AC + ZC3
193Melica minuta L. subsp. latifolia (Coss.) W.HempelPoaceaeH caespSteno-Medit.1 18942520AP − AC + ZC3
194Mentha pulegium L. LamiaceaeH scapSubcosmop. 1 8757X20EP − AC
195Mercurialis annua L.EuphorbiaceaeT scapPaleotemp.11 17754780AP − AUC1 + ZC3
196Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum L.AizoaceaeT scapS-Medit.-African111 1111251X12EP − HC1
197Micromeria graeca (L.) Benth. ex Rchb. subsp. graecaLamiaceaeCh suffrSteno-Medit.1 18842X20EP − AC
198Moraea sisyrinchium (L.) Ker Gawl.IridaceaeG bulbSteno-Medit.1 1 111932410EP − AUC1 + ZC3
199Narcissus miniatus Donn.-Morg., Koop. and Zonn.AmaryllidaceaeG bulbSteno-Medit.1 18744540EP − AUC1
200Nigella damascena L.RanunculaceaeT scapWide-Medit. 11 118953420EP − AUC1
201Olea europaea L. var. sylvestris (Mill.) HegiOleaceaeP caespSteno-Medit.11 11111041X20AP + EP − ZC2
202Oloptum miliaceum (L.) Röser and H.R.HamashaPoaceaeH caespMedit.-Turan.11 115744750AP − AC
203Onobrychis caput-galli (L.) Lam.FabaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 1111942710EP − BC + ZC1
204Ononis natrix L. subsp. ramosissima (Desf.) Batt.FabaceaeH caespWide-Medit.111111XXXXXXXEP − BC
205Ononis variegata L.FabaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.111 111942X10EP − BC
206Ophrys lutea Cav.OrchidaceaeG bulbSteno-Medit.1 18943630EP − AC
207Ophrys sicula TineoOrchidaceaeG bulbSubendem.1 18943630EP − AC
208Ophrys speculum LinkOrchidaceaeG bulbW-Medit. 1 8943630EP − AC
209Orchis italica Poir.OrchidaceaeG bulbSteno-Medit.1 18942420EP − AC
210Ornithogalum gussonei Ten.AsparagaceaeG bulbSteno-Medit.1 17742620EP − AUC1 + ZC3
211Orobanche minor Sm.OrobanchaceaeT parSubcosmop.1 17654540EP − AC + AUC1
212Oxalis pes-caprae L.OxalidaceaeG bulbAfrican1 181043X50EP + CG − ATC
213Pallenis spinosa (L.) Cass. subsp. spinosaAsteraceaeT scapWide-Medit. 1 11954X70EP − AC
214Pancratium maritimum L.AmaryllidaceaeG bulbSteno-Medit.1111 1111031X10EP − AUC1 + HC2 + ZC2
215Papaver hybridum L.PapaveraceaeT scapMedit.-Turan.1 111862320EP − AC
216Papaver rhoeas L. subsp. rhoeasPapaveraceaeT scapE-Medit. 1 166557X0EP − AC
217Papaver somniferum L.PapaveraceaeT scapSubcosmop.11 1XXXXXXXEP − AC
218Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E.Hubb.PoaceaeT scapMedit.-Atl.1 111745723AP − AC
219Parapholis strigosa (Dumort.) C.E.Hubb.PoaceaeT scapMedit.-Atl. 11 11735722AP − AC
220Parietaria judaica L.UrticaceaeH scapMedit.-Atl.1 17853X60BP − AC
221Parietaria lusitanica L. subsp. lusitanicaUrticaceaeT reptSteno-Medit. 1 71043460BP − AC
222Phagnalon saxatile (L.) Cass.AsteraceaeCh suffrW-Medit.1 17942X10EP − AC + HC1
223Phalaris paradoxa L.PoaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 177X4640AP − AC
224Phedimus stellatus (L.) Raf.CrassulaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.11 17942220EP − AC
225Phillyrea latifolia L. OleaceaeP caespW-Medit.1 15844X50AP + EP − ZC2
226Pistacia lentiscus L.AnacardiaceaeP caespSteno-Medit.111111101052X20AP − BC
227Plantago afra L. subsp. afraPlantaginaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 11643720AP + EP − AC + ZC
228Plantago coronopus L.PlantaginaceaeT scapWide-Medit.111 8757740AP − EP + HC1
229Plantago lagopus L.PlantaginaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 1 11943310AP + EP − AC + ZC
230Plantago serraria L.PlantaginaceaeH rosSteno-Medit.11 11111042710AP + EP − BC + ZC
231Plantago weldenii Rchb.PlantaginaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 11XXXXXXXAP + EP − AC + ZC
232Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L. subsp. alsinifolium (Biv.) BallCaryophyllaceaeT scapS-Medit.1 17754560EP − AC
233Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L. subsp. diphyllum (Cav.) O.Bolòs & Font QuerCaryophyllaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 17844560EP − AC
234Polygonum maritimum L.PolygonaceaeH reptSubcosmop.1 1111041312AP + EP − AC
235Polypogon maritimus Willd. subsp. maritimusPoaceaeT scapSteno-Medit. 1 18847961AP − AC
236Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.PoaceaeT scapPaleosubtrop.111 118859860AP − AC
237Polypogon subspathaceus Req.PoaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.11 18848860AP − AC
238Portulaca oleracea L.PortulacaceaeT scapSubcosmop.1 17854770AP + EP − BC
239Poterium sanguisorba L.RosaceaeH scapPaleotemp.1 17653820AP − AC
240Poterium spinosum L.RosaceaeNPSteno-Medit.111111121142X20AP − ZC2
241Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. **ApiaceaeH scapMedit.-Turan. 1 11832720EP − BC
242Ranunculus bullatus L.RanunculaceaeH rosSteno-Medit.1 17842720EP − HC1
244Reichardia intermedia (Sch. Bip.) Samp.AsteraceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 XXXXXXXEP − AC
243Reichardia picroides (L.) RothAsteraceaeH scapSteno-Medit.1 117843620EP − AC
245Rhagadiolus stellatus (L.) Gaertn.AsteraceaeT scapWide-Medit. 1 8953720EP − AC + ZC1
246Rostraria cristata (L.) TzvelevPoaceaeT caespSubcosmop.11 17556820AP − AC
247Rubia peregrina L.RubiaceaeP lianW-Medit.1 15944530EP − ZC2
248Rumex bucephalophorus L. subsp. bucephalophorusPolygonaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.11 181252210AP − AC
249Rumex intermedius DC.PolygonaceaeH scapW-Medit. 1 8753750AP − AC
250Rumex pulcher L. subsp. pulcherPolygonaceaeH scapWide-Medit.11 18852690AP − AC
251Rumex spinosus L.PolygonaceaeT scapW-Medit.11 1111252320AP + EP − AC
252Rumex thyrsoides Desf.PolygonaceaeH scapW-Medit.1 18843750AP − AC
253Saccharum biflorum Forssk.PoaceaeH caespPaleotrop.1 1 1XXXXXXXAP − X
254Sagina apetala Ard. subsp. apetalaCaryophyllaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 18756450EP − AC + ZC3
255Sagina maritima DonCaryophyllaceaeT scapMedit.-Atl.11 18XX7XX0EP − AC + ZC3
256Salsola tragus L.ChenopodiaceaeT scapPaleotemp.1 11 1XXXXXXXAP − AC
257Salvia clandestina L.LamiaceaeH scapSteno-Medit.111 18843570EP − AC
258Sclerochloa dura (L.) P.Beauv.PoaceaeT scapWide-Medit. 1 8852520AP − AC
259Scolymus grandiflorus Desf.AsteraceaeH scapSW-Medit. 111 111032530EP − AC
260Scolymus hispanicus L. subsp. hispanicusAsteraceaeH biennWide-Medit.111 1111853X20EP − AC
261Scorpiurus subvillosus L.FabaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 11XXXXXXXEP − BC + ZC1
262Scrophularia peregrina L.ScrophulariaceaeT scapSteno-Medit. 1 5844650EP − AC
263Sedum caeruleum L.CrassulaceaeT scapSW-Medit. 1 101031110EP − AC
264Sedum rubens L.CrassulaceaeT scapMedit.-Atl.1 19832X20EP − AC
265Senecio glaucus L. subsp. coronopifolius (Maire) C.AlexanderAsteraceaeT scapSaharo-Sind.11 1111261610EP − AC
266Senecio pygmaeus DC.AsteraceaeT scapEndem. Sic.-Malta.11 191031310EP − AC
267Senecio vulgaris L. subsp. vulgarisAsteraceaeT scapCosmop.11 17XX5X80EP − AC
268Serapias parviflora Parl.OrchidaceaeG bulbW-Medit.1 1111042420EP − AC
269Seseli tortuosum L. subsp. maritimum C. Brullo, Brullo, Giusso & Sciandr.ApiaceaeH biennEndem. Ital.1 1111043720EP − AC
270Silene colorata Poir.CaryophyllaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.11 1111931X12EP − AC + ZC3
271Silene niceensis All.CaryophyllaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.111 1111042311EP − AC + ZC3
272Silene sedoides Poir. subsp. sedoidesCaryophyllaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.11 1111032211EP − AC + ZC3
273Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke subsp. tenoreana (Colla) Soldano & F.ContiCaryophyllaceaeH scapE-Medit.11 18XX4720EP − AC + ZC3
274Sixalix atropurpurea (L.) Greuter & BurdetDipsacaceaeH biennSteno-Medit.1 116843X20EP − AC + ZC
275Smilax aspera L.SmilacaceaeG rhizPaleosubtrop.1 1161042530AP + EP − ZC2
276Solanum dulcamara L.SolanaceaeNPPaleotemp. 1 75X8X80EP − ZC2
277Solanum linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.JaegerSolanaceaeNPAfrican 1 91152X10EP − ZC2
278Solanum nigrum L.SolanaceaeT scapCosmop.11 17653570EP − ZC2
279Sonchus asper (L.) Hill subsp. asperAsteraceaeT scapCosmop.1 175X4770EP − AC
280Sonchus bulbosus (L.) N.Kilian & Greuter subsp. bulbosusAsteraceaeG bulbSteno-Medit.11 17843530EP − AC
281Sonchus oleraceus L.AsteraceaeT scapCosmop. 1 175X4880EP − AC
282Sonchus tenerrimus L.AsteraceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 17842540EP − AC
285Spergularia bocconei (Scheele) Graebn.CaryophyllaceaeT scapSubcosmop.1 77X6340EP − AC + ZC3
283Spergularia heldreichii E.Simon & P.MonnierCaryophyllaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 111932212EP − AC + ZC3
284Spergularia marina (L.) BesserCaryophyllaceaeT scapSubcosmop.1 1 177568X2EP − AC + ZC3
286Sporobolus virginicus (L.) KunthPoaceaeG rhizSubtrop.1111 111141X13AP − AC
287Stachys major (L.) Bartolucci & PeruzziLamiaceaeCh frutSteno-Medit.11 1 1111042X10EP − AC
288Stachys romana (L.) E.H.L.KrauseLamiaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.111 111942610EP − AC
289Stipellula capensis (Thunb.) Röser & H.R.HamashaPoaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 11111041410AP − AC
290Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort.ChenopodiaceaeT scapCosmop. 1 9628773AP − AC
291Suaeda vera J.F.Gmel.ChenopodiaceaeNPCosmop.11 1111058973AP − AC
292Sulla spinosissima (L.) B.H.Choi & H.OhashiFabaceaeT scapW-Medit.1 111942320EP − ZC1
293Symphyotrichum squamatum (Spreng.) G.L.NesomAsteraceaeT scapNeotrop.1 18854770EP − AC
294Teucrium fruticans L. subsp. fruticansLamiaceaeNPW-Medit.1 11111842720EP − AC
295Thapsia garganica L. subsp. garganicaApiaceaeH scapS-Medit.111 1111853530EP − AC + ZC1
296Theligonum cynocrambe L.RubiaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 110942340EP − AC
297Thinopyrum junceum (L.) Á.LövePoaceaeG rhizWide-Medit. 1 12657772AP − AC
298Thymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl.ThymelaeaceaeCh suffrS-Medit.-W-Asiatic11 1 111852X31EP − AUC1
299Thymelaea passerina (L.) Coss. & Germ.ThymelaeaceaeT scapWide-Medit.-Asiatic 1 8753720EP − AUC1
300Tordylium apulum L.ApiaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 111942X20EP − AC
301Trifolium angustifolium L. subsp. angustifoliumFabaceaeT scapWide-Medit. 1 10952320EP − AC
302Trifolium campestre Schreb.FabaceaeT scapPaleotemp.1 18554X30EP − AC
303Trifolium nigrescens Viv. subsp. nigrescensFabaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 18655560EP − AC
304Trifolium scabrum L.FabaceaeT reptWide-Medit.1 110852910EP − AC
305Trifolium squarrosum L.FabaceaeT scapWide-Medit. 1 10952320EP − AC
306Trifolium stellatum L.FabaceaeT scapWide-Medit.1 110952X20EP − AC
307Trifolium tomentosum L.FabaceaeT reptPaleotemp.1 19954720EP − AC
308Triglochin laxiflora Guss.JuncaginaceaeG bulbW-Medit.1 18848770AP − AUC1
309Trigonella foenum-graecum L.FabaceaeT scapW-Asiatic 1 9952X40EP − AC
310Tripodion tetraphyllum (L.) Fourr.FabaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 1101032X30EP − AC
311Tuberaria guttata (L.) Fourr.CistaceaeT scapWide-Medit. 1 11952110EP − BC
312Typha domingensis (Pers.) Steud.TyphaceaeG rhizCosmop.1 1XXXXXXXAP − AC
313Umbilicus horizontalis (Guss.) DC.CrassulaceaeG bulbMedit.-Atl. 1 5843X30EP − AC
314Urospermum dalechampii (L.) F.W.SchmidtAsteraceaeH scapMedit.-Atl. 11 18853X30EP − AC
315Urospermum picroides (L.) Scop. ex F.W.SchmidtAsteraceaeT scapWide-Medit.11 111952X20EP − AC
316Urtica membranacea Poir.UrticaceaeT scapS-Medit.11 17853630BP − AC
317Urtica urens L.UrticaceaeT scapSubcosmop. 1 76X5780BP − AC
318Valantia muralis L.RubiaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1111 110942310EP − AC
319Valerianella microcarpa Loisel.ValerianaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.11 111942510EP − AC
320Verbascum sinuatum L.ScrophulariaceaeH biennWide-Medit.1111 19853770EP − AC + ZC
321Verbascum thapsus L. subsp. thapsusScrophulariaceaeH biennEurop.-Caucas. 1 8X44770EP − AC + ZC
322Vicia benghalensis L.FabaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 111942520EP − BC + AUC1
323Vicia bithynica (L.) L.FabaceaeT scapWide-Medit. 1 17753550EP − BC + AUC1
324Vicia leucantha Biv.FabaceaeT scapSW-Medit. 1111152720EP − BC + AUC1
325Vicia macrocarpa (Moris) Bertol.FabaceaeT scapMedit.-Turan. 1 556XXX0EP − BC + AUC1
326Vicia sativa L.FabaceaeT scapSubcosmop.1 1556XXX0EP − BC + AUC1
327Vicia villosa RothFabaceaeT scapSteno-Medit.1 7654450EP − BC + AUC1
328Xanthium italicum MorettiAsteraceaeT scapS-Europ.1 18755X10EP − ZC1
TOTAL269147545755257
* In the impossibility to check the exsiccata of Albo (stored in the Herbarium of the University of Naples “Federico II”, NAP), due to the restrictions imposed by the Sars-CoV-2, the interpretation of the plant names reported by Albo (1919) resulted sometimes difficult. For instance, Albo reported the local occurrence of eight different taxa belonging to the genus Statice (=Limonium). Apart from Statice sinuata (=L. sinuatum, still occurring on the islet), the other seven names probably correspond to three taxa only, i.e., the ones still occurring there. Based on morphological, ecological and occurrence data, in fact, the best match for Albo’s names is the following: Statice psiloclada var. panormitana, St. psiloclada var. gracilis and St. psiloclada var. albida probably correspond to L. hyblaeum, the records of Statice minuta var. cosyrensis and St. minuta var. minutiflora should instead be referred to L. syracusanum, while St. minuta var. virgata and St. minuta var. dubia may coincide with L. virgatum. ** Koeleria splendens and Prangos ferulacea were almost certainly recorded by mistake.

Appendix B. Syntaxonomical Scheme of the Vegetation Units Recorded from the Island of Capo Passero (SE-Sicily)

  • Crithmo-Staticetea Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine and Nègre 1952
  • Crithmo-Staticetalia Molinier 1934
  • Crithmo-Staticion Molinier 1934
  • Crithmo maritimi-Limonietum virgati Pirone 1995
  • Limonietum hyblaei Bartolo, Brullo and Marcenò 1982
  • Salicornietea fruticosae Br.-Bl. and R. Tx. ex A. Bolòs y Vayreda and O. Bolòs in A. Bolòs y Vayreda 1950
  • Salicornietalia fruticosae Br.-Bl. 1933
  • Arthrocnemion macrostachyi Rivas-Mart. and M. Costa 1984
  • Limonio virgati-Arthrocnemetum macrostachyi Biondi, Casavecchia and Guerra 2006
  • Suaedion brevifoliae Br.-Bl. and O. de Bolòs 1958
  • Halimiono portulacoidis-Suaedetumverae Molinier and Tallon 1970 corr. Géhu in Géhu and al. 1984
  • Saginetea maritimae Westhoff, Van Leeuwen and Adriani 1962
  • Frankenietalia pulverulentae Rivas-Mart. ex Castroviejo and Porta 1976
  • Frankenion pulverulentae Rivas-Mart. ex Castroviejo and Porta 1976
  • Polypogonetum subspathacei Gamisans 1992
  • Parapholido incurvae-Catapodietum balearici Rivas-Mart. et al. 1990 corr. Brullo and Giusso 2003
  • Senecio pygmaeus community
  • Mesembryanthemion crystallini Rivas-Mart., Wildpret, Del Arco, O. Rodríguez, Pérez de Paz, García Gallo, Acebes, T.E. Díaz and Fernández-González 1993
  • Spergulario bocconei-Mesembryanthemetum nodiflori Costa in Costa et al. 1997
  • Ononido-Rosmarinetea Br.-Bl. in A. Bolòs y Vayreda 1950
  • Cisto-Micromerietalia julianae Oberd. 1954
  • Cisto cretici-Ericion manipuliflorae Horvatic 1958
  • Chamaeropo humilis-Sarcopoterietum spinosi Barbagallo, Brullo and Fagotto 1979
  • Quercetea ilicis Br.-Bl. ex A. Bolòs and O. de Bolòs in A. Bolòs y Vayreda 1950
  • Pistacio lentisci-Rhamnetalia alaterni Rivas-Mart. 1975
  • Oleo-Ceratonion siliquae Br.-Bl. ex Guinochet and Drouineau 1944
  • Pistacio lentisci-Chamaeropetum humilis Brullo and Marcenò 1985
  • Ammophiletea Br.-Bl. et Tx. ex Westhoff et al. 1946
  • Ammophiletalia Br.-Bl. et Tx. ex Westhoff et al. 1946
  • Ammophilion australis Br.-Bl. 1921
  • Medicagini marinae-Ammophiletum australis Br.-Bl. 1921 corr. Prieto and Diaz 1991
  • Crucianelletalia maritimae Sissing 1974
  • Crucianellion maritimae Rivas Goday and Rivas-Mart. 1958
  • Centaureo sphaerocephalae-Ononidetum ramosissimae Br.-Bl. and Frei in Frei 1937
  • Cakiletea maritimae Tx. and Preising in Tx. Ex Br.-Bl. and Tx. 1952
  • Atriplicetalia littoralis Sissingh in Westhoff et al. 1946
  • Atriplicion littoralis Nordhagen 1940
  • Salsolo-Cakiletum maritimae Costa and Mansanet 1981 corr. Rivas-Mart. et al. 1992
  • Helianthemetea guttati Rivas Goday and Rivas-Mart. 1963
  • Vulpietalia Pignatti 1953
  • Laguro ovati-Vulpion fasciculatae Géhu and Biondi 1994
  • Silene nicaensis and Senecio coronopifolius community
  • Stipo-Trachynietea distachyae S. Brullo in S. Brullo et al. 2001
  • Stipo-Bupleuretalia semicompositi S. Brullo in S. Brullo et al. 2001
  • Plantagini-Catapodion marini S. Brullo 1985
  • Stipellula capensis and Asteriscus aquaticus community
  • Phragmito-Magnocaricetea Klika in Klika and Novák 1941
  • Phragmitetalia Koch 1926
  • Phragmition Koch 1926
  • Typhetum domingensis Brullo, Minissale and Spampinato 1994

Appendix C

Table A2. Phytosociological relevés from the Island of Capo Passero (SE Sicily)—shrub vegetation.
Table A2. Phytosociological relevés from the Island of Capo Passero (SE Sicily)—shrub vegetation.
Cluster11111111111111111111111112222222222222222Occurrences
Relevé number181982171101534671614514614714815759111213141721891719019120224134135181920212223252627
Shrub layer (cover %)996060807095559595997080859085901009570909895708090851001001008510090989898559090909080
Herbaceous layer (cover %)1565-20-45404520351535-----10205303555--15---4--84535202020204045
Shrub layer—mean height (cm)70100-100-1001201001007070100-----10080708010080--40---45--404550403040403530
Herbaceous layer—mean height (cm)4050-30-30452515301515-----204010604025--15---10--255045252540254015
Plot size (square m)505010020010080702510040100100100100100100251002005010010010010050100505010080100100502010050100100507050
ExposureSW------WWN----SS----S-----------SS---S--WNW-
Slope (°)2-----------55----------------45-------1-
Stones and rocks (cover %)-----------------------------------------
Char. Ass.
Chamaerops humilis L.5434433322444333333234434.1+1.++....r....31
Poterium spinosum L..1.............2133441322555554455535555527
Char. Oleo-Ceratonion
Pistacia lentiscus L..1+34424352134434122+12421+2.212++++1+1.+38
Asparagus acutifolius L.+1+1.1+11111+++1..1.1+1+1.++.1++.+1111...31
Arisarum vulgare O.Targ.Tozz. subsp. vulgare1..1...221.2.....1..+2..1111....+1+..+++.19
Teucrium fruticans L. subsp. fruticans.....................23211......1.1......7
Cytisus infestus (C. Presl) Guss. subsp. infestus....+...2.....++...+.....................5
Phillyrea latifolia L....1+..1.................................3
Char. Cisto-Micromerietalia julianae
Micromeria graeca (L.) Benth. ex Rchb. subsp. graeca..................................1+12...4
Phagnalon saxatile (L.) Cass.........+.............+++.+..........+.+.7
Thymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl. ...........................+.2.+.........3
Other species
Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. hispanica (Roth) Nyman.+.1111++1+.++.++111++1++.++......+..+..+26
Stachys major (L.) Bartolucci & Peruzzi32.2212111+....+.2211+.1......+++++++.11.26
Charybdis pancration (Steinh.) Speta....+.......+++.....111+11++.+211.++....119
Asphodelus ramosus L. subsp. ramosus....+..++..........+++1..1++..++1113..1+.18
Avena barbata Pott ex Link ++++.++..+.......+.++.+.........+.+..++1+17
Lotus creticus L..........................+..+1..++++1+12+12
Thapsia garganica L. subsp. garganica+.+11....+..+.++..+..++............+.....12
Scorpiurus subvillosus L....+...+.+.........+++............+.+++.211
Vicia sativa L....+.+++.+.......+..1+...........++...+..11
Lotus edulis L..........+.........++.+.........+++...++110
Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U. Manns & Anderb. subsp. arvensis.........+..........++.........+..+.+++++10
Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf subsp. hirta.....+...1....+......+.++........21...1..9
Sonchus bulbosus (L.) N.Kilian & Greuter subsp. bulbosus.......+12.......+.+.++..............++..9
Carex divisa Huds. ....1.....23+.+.........+.++.............8
Plantago serraria L..+......++..........+.+.........+.+1.....8
Urospermum dalechampii (L.) F.W.Schmidt......+......................+.++++..+..+8
Convolvulus althaeoides L.......+.............+........+..+++.+....7
Hypericum perfoliatum L......++............++++...........+......7
Lagurus ovatus L. subsp. ovatus.............................++++.+.++...7
Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.......+.........++.............+..+..++..7
Andropogon distachyos L.....+2............2..131.................6
Anisantha fasciculata (C. Presl) Nevski subsp. fasciculata.........+......................+.+.+++..6
Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P.Beauv..+....+...........................++..2+.6
Briza maxima L......+.............+..........++..+...+..6
Centaurium tenuiflorum (Hoffmanns. and Link)
Fritsch subsp. tenuiflorum
.+...+.............+.........+.......++..6
Galactites tomentosus Moench..1...................r............+..+++6
Lathyrus clymenum L. ...+..+..+............................1316
Rumex bucephalophorus L. subsp. bucephalophorus..............................++..+.+++..6
Lotus tetragonolobus L..........+......................++.+.+...5
Mandragora autumnalis Bertol. ........+..+.........+...+.......+.......5
Ononis natrix L. subsp. ramosissima (Desf.) Batt.............................11++.....r...5
Sonchus oleraceus L. .........+.......+....................+++5
Valantia muralis L...+...........................++.....++..5
Vicia benghalensis L.1..1............................113......5
Bellardia trixago (L.) All..............................+.+..+..+...4
Blackstonia perfoliata (L.) Huds......+..............+........+.......+...4
Cachrys libanotis L.....+..........+..............1+.........4
Cachrys sicula L.............+1................++.........4
Carlina corymbosa L..............................+.+.++......4
Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E.Hubb. subsp. rigidum.........+......................+....++..4
Linum strictum L. .............................+....+..+..14
Lotus ornithopodioides L..........+...........+............+.....+4
Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth......++.+..............................+4
Stachys romana (L.) E.H.L.Krause..+...................................+++4
Silene colorata Poir,.............................+.+....++...4
Stipellula capensis (Thunb.) Röser & H.R.Hamasha.....................................++++4
Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. subsp. iva.....+.............................+..+..3
Festuca myuros L...1...........................++.........3
Lotus cytisoides L.....+.........................+1.........3
Medicago littoralis Rohde ex Loisel...+...............................+..+...3
Medicago minima (L.) L........+........................+....+...3
Medicago polymorpha L..........+............................+.+3
Mercurialis annua L......................................+r+.3
Tripodion tetraphyllum (L.) Fourr.....................+...........+.......13
Polypogon subspathaceus Req.............+++..........................3
Rubia peregrina L.1..1.................1...................3
Trifolium campestre Schreb..........+...........................+..+3
Vicia bithynica (L.) L.......+.............2...................13
Anisantha madritensis (L.) Nevski subsp. madritensis......................................++.2
Avellinia festucoides (Link) Valdés & H. Scholz....................................1+...2
Bromus hordeaceus L. subsp. hordeaceus..2.........................1............2
Centaurium pulchellum (Sw.) Druce subsp. pulchellum......................+.........+........2
Erodium malacoides (L.) L’Hér. subsp. malacoides.....................+................+..2
Euphorbia exigua L. subsp. exigua......+..+...............................2
Euphorbia peplus L....+....+................................2
Hypericum perforatum L. subsp. perforatum....+..................+.................2
Linum trigynum L.......................+......+...........2
Medicago orbicularis (L.) Bartal.......................................+.+2
Medicago truncatula Gaertn. .................+......................+2
Melica ciliata L. subsp. magnolii (Godr. & Gren.) K.Richt.......1...............+..................2
Melica minuta L. subsp. latifolia (Coss.) W.Hempel.....2.1.................................2
Oloptum miliaceum (L.) Röser and H.R.Hamasha......2...........................1......2
Rostraria cristata (L.) Tzvelev....................................++...2
Rumex thyrsoides Desf....+..+..................................2
Scolymus hispanicus L. subsp. hispanicus..+.........................+............2
Senecio coronopifolius Desf.....................................++...2
Sonchus tenerrimus L....+...................................+.2
Tordylium apulum L..................+....................+..2
Trifolium stellatum L.......................................+.+2
Triglochin laxiflora Guss....+.......+.............................2
Urospermum picroides (L.) Scop. ex F.W.Schmidt...+.....+...............................2
Vicia villosa Roth..............................++.........2
Allium roseum L. subsp. roseum..................................+......1
Andryala integrifolia L...+......................................1
Anisantha rigida (Roth) Hyl......................................+...1
Barlia robertiana (Loisel.) Greuter................................r........1
Brachypodium retusum (Pers.) P.Beauv..3.......................................1
Calendula arvensis (Vaill.) L..........+...............................1
Campanula erinus L......................................+...1
Cerastium semidecandrum L.....................................+....1
Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze subsp. nepeta..................................r......1
Crassula tillaea Lest.-Garl.........+................................1
Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. cardunculus.1.......................................1
Daucus pumilus (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link.....................................+...1
Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter subsp. viscosa....................+....................1
Echinophora spinosa L. *............................+............1
Erodium laciniatum (Cav.) Willd. subsp. laciniatum............................+............1
Ervum tetraspermum L........2.................................1
Euphorbia helioscopia L. subsp. helioscopia...................................+.....1
Euphorbia terracina L......................................+...1
Filago pygmaea L.....................................+....1
Galium murale (L.) All.........+................................1
Gladiolus italicus Mill....+.....................................1
Hedypnois rhagadioloides (L.) F.W.Schmidt...................+.....................1
Hyoseris scabra L...+......................................1
Limonium virgatum (Willd.) Fourr...........+..............................1
Narcissus miniatus Donn.-Morg., Koop. and Zonn............+.............................1
Onobrychis caput-galli (L.) Lam.........................................+1
Oxalis pes-caprae L..........................+...............1
Pancratium maritimum L.................+........................1
Phedimus stellatus (L.) Raf.......................................+..1
Poterium sanguisorba L. .........................+...............1
Salvia clandestina L......................................+...1
Sedum rubens L.........+................................1
Silene nicaensis All..............