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Small Non-Coding RNAs at the Crossroads of Regulatory Pathways Controlling Somatic Embryogenesis in Seed Plants

1
BioISI—Biosystems & Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
2
Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
3
Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Calçada Martim de Freitas, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal
4
iBET, Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica, Apartado 12, 2781-901 Oeiras, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sharyn Perry
Plants 2021, 10(3), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030504
Received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 26 February 2021 / Accepted: 1 March 2021 / Published: 9 March 2021
Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are molecules with important regulatory functions during development and environmental responses across all groups of terrestrial plants. In seed plants, the development of a mature embryo from the zygote follows a synchronized cell division sequence, and growth and differentiation events regulated by highly regulated gene expression. However, given the distinct features of the initial stages of embryogenesis in gymnosperms and angiosperms, it is relevant to investigate to what extent such differences emerge from differential regulation mediated by sncRNAs. Within these, the microRNAs (miRNAs) are the best characterized class, and while many miRNAs are conserved and significantly represented across angiosperms and other seed plants during embryogenesis, some miRNA families are specific to some plant lineages. Being a model to study zygotic embryogenesis and a relevant biotechnological tool, we systematized the current knowledge on the presence and characterization of miRNAs in somatic embryogenesis (SE) of seed plants, pinpointing the miRNAs that have been reported to be associated with SE in angiosperm and gymnosperm species. We start by conducting an overview of sncRNA expression profiles in the embryonic tissues of seed plants. We then highlight the miRNAs described as being involved in the different stages of the SE process, from its induction to the full maturation of the somatic embryos, adding references to zygotic embryogenesis when relevant, as a contribution towards a better understanding of miRNA-mediated regulation of SE. View Full-Text
Keywords: angiosperms; auxin-responsive genes; early embryogenesis; somatic embryo maturation; gymnosperms; miRNAs angiosperms; auxin-responsive genes; early embryogenesis; somatic embryo maturation; gymnosperms; miRNAs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alves, A.; Cordeiro, D.; Correia, S.; Miguel, C. Small Non-Coding RNAs at the Crossroads of Regulatory Pathways Controlling Somatic Embryogenesis in Seed Plants. Plants 2021, 10, 504. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030504

AMA Style

Alves A, Cordeiro D, Correia S, Miguel C. Small Non-Coding RNAs at the Crossroads of Regulatory Pathways Controlling Somatic Embryogenesis in Seed Plants. Plants. 2021; 10(3):504. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030504

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alves, Ana; Cordeiro, Daniela; Correia, Sandra; Miguel, Célia. 2021. "Small Non-Coding RNAs at the Crossroads of Regulatory Pathways Controlling Somatic Embryogenesis in Seed Plants" Plants 10, no. 3: 504. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030504

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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