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Phytosanitary Interventions for Safe Global Germplasm Exchange and the Prevention of Transboundary Pest Spread: The Role of CGIAR Germplasm Health Units

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International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Oyo Road, PMB 5320, Ibadan 200001, Nigeria
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The Alliance of Bioversity International and International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira 763537, Cali, Colombia
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International Potato Center (CIP), Avenida La Molina 1895, Lima 15023, Peru
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International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Banos 4031, Philippines
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International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Terbol Station, Zahle 1801, Lebanon
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The Alliance of Bioversity International-CIAT & University of Liège, Gembloux Agro-BioTech, Passage des déportés, 2, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium
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International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), México-Veracruz, El Batán Km. 45, Texcoco 56237, Mexico
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World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF), United Nations Avenue, Gigiri P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
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Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2551, Bouake 99326, Côte d’Ivoire
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International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502324, Hyderabad, India
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International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Addis Ababa P.O. Box 5689, Ethiopia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: AGROINNOVA, University of Turin, Italy. Largo Paolo Braccini 2, Grugliasco, Italy.
Current address: Polo GGB, Terni, Italy.
Academic Editors: Andreas W. Ebert and Johannes M. M. Engels
Plants 2021, 10(2), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020328
Received: 29 November 2020 / Revised: 10 January 2021 / Accepted: 28 January 2021 / Published: 9 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biodiversity and Genetic Resources)
The inherent ability of seeds (orthodox, intermediate, and recalcitrant seeds and vegetative propagules) to serve as carriers of pests and pathogens (hereafter referred to as pests) and the risk of transboundary spread along with the seed movement present a high-risk factor for international germplasm distribution activities. Quarantine and phytosanitary procedures have been established by many countries around the world to minimize seed-borne pest spread by screening export and import consignments of germplasm. The effectiveness of these time-consuming and cost-intensive procedures depends on the knowledge of pest distribution, availability of diagnostic tools for seed health testing, qualified operators, procedures for inspection, and seed phytosanitation. This review describes a unique multidisciplinary approach used by the CGIAR Germplasm Health Units (GHUs) in ensuring phytosanitary protection for the safe conservation and global movement of germplasm from the 11 CGIAR genebanks and breeding programs that acquire and distribute germplasm to and from all parts of the world for agricultural research and food security. We also present the challenges, lessons learned, and recommendations stemming from the experience of GHUs, which collaborate with the national quarantine systems to export and distribute about 100,000 germplasm samples annually to partners located in about 90 to 100 countries. Furthermore, we describe how GHUs adjust their procedures to stay in alignment with evolving phytosanitary regulations and pest risk scenarios. In conclusion, we state the benefits of globally coordinated phytosanitary networks for the prevention of the intercontinental spread of pests that are transmissible through plant propagation materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: CGIAR; crop genetic resources; diagnostics; germplasm; crop breeding; pathogen; pest; Plant Treaty; phytosanitary regulations; transboundary pests; invasive species; prevention; quarantine; seed; seed health; virus indexing CGIAR; crop genetic resources; diagnostics; germplasm; crop breeding; pathogen; pest; Plant Treaty; phytosanitary regulations; transboundary pests; invasive species; prevention; quarantine; seed; seed health; virus indexing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, P.L.; Cuervo, M.; Kreuze, J.F.; Muller, G.; Kulkarni, G.; Kumari, S.G.; Massart, S.; Mezzalama, M.; Alakonya, A.; Muchugi, A.; Graziosi, I.; Ndjiondjop, M.-N.; Sharma, R.; Negawo, A.T. Phytosanitary Interventions for Safe Global Germplasm Exchange and the Prevention of Transboundary Pest Spread: The Role of CGIAR Germplasm Health Units. Plants 2021, 10, 328. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020328

AMA Style

Kumar PL, Cuervo M, Kreuze JF, Muller G, Kulkarni G, Kumari SG, Massart S, Mezzalama M, Alakonya A, Muchugi A, Graziosi I, Ndjiondjop M-N, Sharma R, Negawo AT. Phytosanitary Interventions for Safe Global Germplasm Exchange and the Prevention of Transboundary Pest Spread: The Role of CGIAR Germplasm Health Units. Plants. 2021; 10(2):328. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020328

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar, P. L.; Cuervo, Maritza; Kreuze, J. F.; Muller, Giovanna; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Kumari, Safaa G.; Massart, Sebastien; Mezzalama, Monica; Alakonya, Amos; Muchugi, Alice; Graziosi, Ignazio; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noelle; Sharma, Rajan; Negawo, Alemayehu T. 2021. "Phytosanitary Interventions for Safe Global Germplasm Exchange and the Prevention of Transboundary Pest Spread: The Role of CGIAR Germplasm Health Units" Plants 10, no. 2: 328. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020328

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