Next Article in Journal
Global Plant Virus Disease Pandemics and Epidemics
Previous Article in Journal
Efficient Protocol for Improving the Development of Cryopreserved Embryonic Axes of Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by Encapsulation–Vitrification
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Ethnomedicinal Plants Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Jaundice (Icterus) in Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya—A Review

School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan 173229, India
School of Bioengineering and Food Technology, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan 173229, India
Department of Neurology of the Medical Faculty of Charles University and University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Sokolska 581, 50005 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, 50003 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
Biomedical Research Center, University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Sokolska 581, 50005 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2021, 10(2), 232;
Submission received: 8 November 2020 / Revised: 15 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 25 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemistry)


Ethnomedicinal plants have a significant role in the lives of people of rural and tribal areas. Thousands of medicinal plant species are used to treat various diseases, including jaundice, and are considered an important therapeutic resource to minimize these diseases. Jaundice (icterus) is a chronic disease that occurs when the amount of bilirubin in the blood increases. This review describes different ethnomedicinal plants used for curing jaundice by tribal and rural people of Himachal Pradesh. The study reveals 87 ethnomedicinal plant species belonging to 51 different families, which are used for treating jaundice in Himachal Pradesh. These plants are arranged in a systematic way, which includes a description of their common name, botanical name, along with its family, plant parts used, region, and mode of use in tabulated form. Some of the plant extracts have already been explored for their phytochemical and pharmacological significance and proved their potential in the preparation of new medicines or drugs against the treatment of jaundice. This review is an attempt to highlight the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants, which are specifically used for the treatment of jaundice. The data mentioned in the present review is compiled from various sources like existing literature, books, Google Scholar, and Scopus publications. Among all the observed plant species, most used medicinal plants for the treatment of jaundice include Justicia adhatoda, Emblica officinalis, Ricinus communis, Saccharum officinarum, Terminalia chebula, Berberis aristata, Cuscuta reflexa, and Tinospora cordifolia. Plants that are mostly utilized for the treatment of jaundice need to be scientifically validated by pharmacological analysis and should be subsequently used for the preparation of new drugs, which may prove far more beneficial than the existing one.

Graphical Abstract

1. Introduction

Himachal Pradesh is one of the Himalayan states of India, which has been regarded as the richest resource of biodiversity. The area is rich in medicinal plants, which are widely used by the people of different tribal and rural areas. The state is divided into 12 districts and 169 tehsils and sub-tehsils, covering a total area of 55,673 km2 with altitude variation from 200–7000 m above sea level [1]. Geographically, the state shows three different zones or regions, known as the outer Himalaya, mid-hills, and the greater Himalaya. The outer Himalaya, also known as the Shiwalik hills, ranges from 350 m to 1500 m above sea level and includes districts, such as Bilaspur, Sirmour, Kangra, Una, Chamba, Mandi, Hamirpur, and some parts of Solan. Mid-hills (1500 to 3500 m above sea level) cover the area of Mandi, Kangra, Chamba, Solan, Shimla, Lahaul-Spiti, Kinnaur, and Kullu districts. The Greater Himalaya (ranges 3500 and above) covers the area of Lahaul-Spiti, Kullu, and Pangi tehsil of Chamba district, which is also known as the high-altitude alpine area [2,3]. Himachal Pradesh in the lap of western Himalaya is well-known for its floral diversity, including medicinal plants, which are used since ancient times for the treatment of jaundice. The dependency of human beings on plants is an age-old relationship, which is described as ‘ethnobotany’. Ethnobotany comes from the term ethnology, which means the study of culture, so ethnobotany or ethnobiology is a scientific study of plants and human relationship, which shows plants as a primary source of need. Ethnobotany deals with various aspects in which one of the most popular and common aspect is the study and use of ethnomedicines. Ethnomedicine involves the study of indigenous beliefs, concepts, knowledge, and practices among the ethnic groups of tribal and rural people for preventing, curing, and treating jaundice. For human existence, since ancient times, especially, the ethnic or tribal community has a great dependence on local flora for medicinal and other purposes [1,4]. The traditional medicine system represents the indigenous beliefs, skills, and practices of rural and tribal communities based on their experiences to maintain their health [5]. Traditional medicines play an efficient role in the preparation of herbal drugs for the betterment of people [6]. This system of medicines is used for curing diseases through the employment of agencies and forces of nature. Tribal people have their own system of medicines, which are age-old, and some of which are not documented in the literature. This tradition has been passed on from one generation to the other for treating jaundice. The information on medicinal and various other plants comes from the ancient people when they started learning and making use of these traditional plants for various purposes [7,8].
Medicinal plants are regarded as the gift of nature to humans. Various parts of medicinal plants, including herbs, shrubs, and trees, are used for curing jaundice and diseases like neurodegenerative, inflammatory, anthelmintic, diaphoretic, diuretic, etc. According to WHO (World Health Organization), “medicinal plant is a plant, within which one or more of its part contains the substances, which can be further used for various therapeutic purposes, and serves as a precursor for chemo-pharmaceutical semi-synthesis” [9]. Various bioactive compounds of plants called the secondary metabolites are the reason for their medicinal value and include glycosides, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, terpenoids, essential oils, etc. [10]. Himachal Pradesh is endowed with a rich diversity of plants, which includes 3500 higher plants, and of these, 1500 plants are identified with medicinal and aromatic properties [11]. Because of the geographical position and difficult means of transport and communication, people of some major tribes of Himachal Pradesh (Gaddi, Gujjar, Kinnaura, Lahula, and Pangwals) mostly live in villages and rural areas and belongs to diverse cultures. These people, with their specific traditional knowledge, make use of different medicinal plants for curing jaundice [1]. Medicinal and ethnobotanical uses of different plant species are documented by various researchers or scientists from different areas of Himachal Pradesh based upon the information provided by the local ethnic people [12]. Ethnomedicines have made good contributions in the health care system in traditional medicines for the treatment of jaundice since ancient times. There are two broad categories for the use of medicinal plants; firstly, plants are used traditionally only by local physicians for getting relief from illness, and secondly, the plants are used by pharmaceutical companies for their active ingredients [13]. According to WHO, due to poverty and lack of modern medicines among different rural and tribal areas, it is estimated that about 70–80% of the world’s total population is totally dependent on the local medicinal plants for their primary healthcare system [8].
Ethnomedicinal plants are generally used for curing various ailments like diabetes, dysentery, typhoid, and jaundice. Different parts of the plant, including roots, leaves, fruits, and flowers, are used for the treatment of jaundice. Furthermore, jaundice is not just a disease rather a sign of a disease that occurs in the liver, which indicates impairment of the liver functioning [14,15]. The foremost ancient literature says that “iecur” is a Latin word that was previously used to describe the term liver [16]. Basically, the term jaundice is taken from the french word “jaune”, which means “yellowness” and is characterized by yellow pigmentation [17]. Pigmentation is generally shown by the skin and eyes. It occurs due to the exceeding level of bilirubin. Bilirubin is synthesized in the body and is a natural product that is produced because of hemolysis through the action of liver cells, which further in the presence of biliverdin reductase leads to the production of bilirubin or unconjugated bilirubin. The metabolism of bilirubin describes the pathophysiology of jaundice, as shown in Figure 1.
Under normal circumstances, unconjugated bilirubin (lipid-soluble) in the presence of glucuronic acid gets converted into conjugated bilirubin (water-soluble), which is released in the small intestine. Removal of glucuronic acid in the presence of bacterial protease takes place in the small intestine, which further passes through the large intestine in the form of feces, and the remaining enters the kidney by the portal vein and passes out as urine, as shown in Figure 1 [15]. When this bilirubin accumulates in the blood, skin, sclera, and mucous membrane, it turns yellow in color. This yellowness of skin and other parts is generally called jaundice or icterus and is usually seen when the amount of plasma bilirubin is greater than its normal value, i.e., 2 mg/dL [18].
According to the pathophysiology of jaundice, it is mainly caused due to increased level of bilirubin and its overproduction in the liver, which may occur due to many reasons like acute or minor liver inflammation, obstruction of the bile duct, Gilbert’s syndrome, cholestasis, and hemolytic anemia [15]. Jaundice is usually found much more effective and serious in adults rather than in new-born children (neonates), and sometimes it causes even death of the adult individual [19].
Jaundice shows three different stages or types based on its pathophysiology: pre-hepatic jaundice that is caused due to the hemolysis of red blood cells, also called erythrocytes. Hepatic jaundice occurs due to the abnormal metabolism of the liver or dysfunction of the liver, and post-hepatic jaundice is caused due to less liver functioning or any obstruction in the bile duct, as described in Figure 2.
Jaundice can also be a viral disease, which can spread through contaminated water and food-related items or due to poor sanitization conditions or through several other diseases, such as hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, liver cancer, and hemolytic anemia, etc., which damage liver [14]. It has been estimated that more than two billion people worldwide are infected annually with the hepatitis B virus [20]. The history of jaundice is very long and shown in ancient Ayurveda and the Indian traditional system of medicines [21]. Jaundice is also known as Hariman disease in Rigveda (8000 BC). Herbal treatment is prescribed for jaundice because medicinal plants show a faster rate of reduction in cases when compared with western medicines [22]. This disease shows different kinds of symptoms like weakness, high fever, nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, and the main symptom shown by this disease is the dark urine color. Sometimes, it also leads to serious conditions like coma, a sudden attack of illness or epileptic fits, psychosis (like having a severe mental disorder), and finally, death of the patient. Precautions or prevention for jaundice generally requires a low-fat diet, high water intake as much body requires, and mainly a healthy diet routine and proper nutrition [15].
Due to cultural or historical reasons and the high cost and side effects of allopathic medicines, traditional and herbal medicines have gained popularity for curing jaundice. So, numerous ethnomedicinal plants have been used by the people of different tribes and communities for treating jaundice based on their indigenous knowledge. Thus, this review is an attempt for the exploration of ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of jaundice, which can be cured by locally available plants or with the help of hermits.

2. Materials and Methods

All information regarding plants was collected through published data, including the botanical name of plants, family name, part used, and mode of use. The number of articles reviewed were available as published work on online databases (Science Direct, Pubmed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) and were found using different key phrases (jaundice, ethnomedicinal plants, Himachal Pradesh, traditional uses, western Himalaya, and biological activity). The present study was revised from different scientific articles, including 108 research papers, 30 review papers, and 6 books from 1970 to the 2020 year. Botanical names of different plant species were validated from the online website (

2.1. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Jaundice in Himachal Pradesh

It was observed that approximately 87 ethnomedicinal plants are used by the tribal and rural communities of Himachal Pradesh for curing jaundice, and this information is described in Table 1, where plant families are arranged in alphabetical order and include plant’s botanical name, common name, family, and region (where these plants were reported).
The study revealed that these 87 ethnomedicinal plants show variations among them and represent 51 different families of plants used for the treatment of jaundice in Himachal Pradesh. Most of these plant species used for treating jaundice were observed in different areas of Himachal Pradesh, including different districts, such as Kangra, Hamirpur, and Lahul and Spiti, as shown below in Figure 3. Among all these plant species, common medicinal plants belong to six major families, i.e., Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Gentianaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae.
The plant species most frequently used for the treatment of jaundice include Justicia adhatoda, Emblica officinalis, Ricinus communis, Saccharum officinarum, Terminalia chebula, Berberis aristata, Cuscuta reflexa, and Tinospora cordifolia, and this shows the richness of information regarding medicinal plants used by the people of Himachal Pradesh. Medicinal plants like Aloe vera contains many bioactive compounds, which are responsible for many medicinal properties, such as antibacterial, antioxidants, and immunity-boosting property [18]. Various plant parts have been used for curing jaundice, including stem, leaves, roots, bark, fruits, flowers, seeds, and sometimes even whole plant (described in Table 2). This also strengthens the use of these plants by local people. All ethnomedicinal plants contain some phytochemical constituents, which may be effective in showing an impact on the disease and its cure. The ethnomedicinal significance of plants has been proved by a reassessment of their efficiency potential in different regions. In all the reported plants, there is variation in the usage of plant parts for treating jaundice, which is also shown in Figure 4. This is similar to the work performed in south-western Nigeria, which shows the data analysis of different plant parts used for the treatment of various ailments, including jaundice [8,43,44].

2.2. Mode of Plant Used for the Treatment of Jaundice in Himachal Pradesh

Traditionally, people of Himachal Pradesh use these plant species in appropriate dosages or amounts for curing jaundice. There are different methods of usage of these medicinal plants, like in district Hamirpur, bulb of Colocasia esculenta is cooked as a vegetable, the dried bulb is cut into pieces and then crushed to make powder and given orally to treat jaundice, and juice of fresh Pistacia integerrima is given daily to cure jaundice [24]. Uses of other ethnomedicinal plants are described in Table 2, which includes the plant’s botanical name, plant part used, and mode of use (route of administration) of these plants for treating jaundice. In most cases, these plants are taken alone as a decoction or with a combination of the talmishri or kali mirch. On the other hand, some plants are also taken in combination with other plants, e.g., Emblica officinalis fruit is taken along with the Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellirica fruits, grounded into powder form, and taken orally to cure jaundice [25].
The above pie-chart highlights the different plant parts commonly used for the treatment of jaundice, as analyzed from data in Table 2. It was observed that for jaundice treatment, leaves are highly utilized (31.03%), followed by fruits (20.68%), roots (19.54%), whole plant (19.54%), seeds (8.04%), stem (10.34%), flowers (5.74%), and bark (3.44%); the same pattern is also shown in Figure 3. This indicates that in most cases, the leaves of medicinal plants have more significance than any other plant part. Hence, it can be concluded that leaves are highly effective for curing jaundice, which may be due to more phytochemical accumulation in the plant leaves. However, fruits are the second most used to treat jaundice, root belongs to the third position for treating jaundice, and bark is utilized in the least cases.
Intake of these ethnomedicinal plant parts is suggested to be continued for a definite period or until full recovery. Thus, plants are suggested to be taken in the form of paste, decoction, extract, and dried powder form. Different plant parts contain various organic compounds within them, called secondary metabolites, which may be the reason behind the effectiveness of plant-based treatments and show various chemical and physiological actions against jaundice. These phytoconstituents include proteins, carbohydrates, steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, phenols, flavonoids, vitamins, tannins, and essential oils, which show an inhibitory effect against hepatoprotective diseases, mainly against jaundice [45,46]. T. chebula contains a significant amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The main constituents of the plant include 2,4-chebulyl-β-D-glucopyranose, ellagic acid, gallic acid, and chebulic ellagitannins. T. chebula is one of the main components of the important Ayurvedic formulation “Triphala” (infusion of three fruits, i.e., T. chebula, T. bellirica, and Emblica officinalis). Ayurveda prescribes this formulation to cure kidney and liver dysfunctions. T. chebula extract ensures hepatoprotection against liver diseases, such as jaundice, due to its antioxidant activity and bilirubin level lowering effect. The reduction in serum bilirubin level is the most important evidence, which supports the traditional use of the plant against jaundice [47].

2.3. Phytochemical Constituents Present in the Ethnomedicinal Plants

The medicinal property of plants is mainly because of the formation or stimulation of various chemical compounds that occur naturally in the plants and hence used to cure jaundice and various other diseases. So, this review describes various phytochemical constituents present in the ethnomedicinal plants used by people of Himachal Pradesh for curing jaundice, and the data is taken from different sources. The plants are further used for the development of antimicrobial and antioxidant drugs [48], thus proving their medicinal worth. Plant like Justicia adhatoda consists of various organic [49] and bioactive compounds [50], which possess numerous biological activities, such as antitussive, abortifacient, cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial. Berberis lycium plant shows the presence of tannins, terpenoids, fats, resins, and many active alkaloids. The roots are the foremost important part of the Berberis species as they contain a variety of alkaloids, and the most prominent one is berberine. It has been found that the inhibitory activity of Berberis lycium is shown by the components present in its root extract [51]. Like this, many other plants are used in the treatment of jaundice, possessing various phytochemical constituents, out of which some predominant phytochemicals are described in Table 3.
Ethnomedicinal documentation combined with the screening of various biological properties of plants is one of the convincing ways of discovering new drugs against drug-resistant pathogens in the modern era or against the diseases related to oxidative stress, including jaundice. The effectiveness of these phytochemicals used in treating jaundice and other diseases has been seen in their biological activities, such as antimicrobial, antibacterial, antitumor, antiviral, or antioxidant activity. The oxidative stress of free radicals is directly associated with the presence of pathogenic organisms or due to disease-causing mechanisms of different ailments like cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory diseases [117].

2.4. Ethnopharmacological Evidence of Some Plant Species Used for the Treatment of Jaundice

As described in Table 3, the beneficial effects of medicinal plants are due to the presence of different bioactive compounds that are responsible for the treatment of jaundice. Ethnomedicinal studies combined with phytochemicals are one of the convincing approaches for ethnopharmacological studies [118]. The medicinal effect of different plant parts shows various hepatoprotective activities, including the curing of various liver diseases in which one of the major diseases is jaundice. Various ethnomedicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice, while some plants promote the discovery of active compounds, which further aids in the development of synthetic drugs against jaundice. Although some epidemiological studies are required for the practical implementation of the plants for jaundice treatment [47]. To assess the ethnomedicinal significance of the hepatoprotective plants used, particularly for treating jaundice, different plant species have been reported to be used in various in vivo experiments (Table 4). Table 4 includes various plant species, plant parts used/extracts taken, toxicant and its dose, experimental model (the animal model used for study), constituents that may be responsible for hepatoprotective activities, and their effectiveness against jaundice [15].
In vivo experimental studies with these plants (Table 4) have shown effective results in the treatment of jaundice and confer scientific evidence regarding plant use in the same. In most of the in vivo studies, hepatotoxicity is introduced with CCl4 or with paracetamol; however, in few cases, gentamycin, thioacetamide, t-BHP, and ethanol are also used for the same. Phytochemicals observed for curing hepatotoxicity are phenolic and flavonoid compounds as a major factor in curing hepatotoxicity in most of the in vivo studies. In some cases, hepatotoxicity is reduced by the decrease in serum bilirubin level and an increase in the antioxidant defense system.
As few plants are evaluated with their experimental studies, so this study needs to be intensified more on those plant extracts, which are used extensively for jaundice treatment. Further, nano-formulation of plant extracts enhances their medicinal significance [143,144], so nano-formulation of herbal plants can also be used as an alternative for curing jaundice in the future. At the same time, farmers should be encouraged for the commercial production of important medicinal plants and should further have support from industry and government.

3. Conclusions

Ethnomedicinal knowledge is respected by rural people and has been shown to be useful in the treatment of various diseases and the production of medicines in the Western Himalaya from time to time. Traditional or folk-based plant medicines have shown great potential to form the basis of jaundice-curing drugs. The purpose of the present study was to record the ethnomedicinal knowledge of plants used for the treatment of jaundice by the rural and tribal communities of Himachal Pradesh in western Himalaya. The other aims of this research were to discuss the different important phytochemicals and active compounds present in these plants and to discuss the different in vivo studies performed in support of their medicinal uses, with specific reference to the treatment of jaundice. The outcome of this research showed that the rural people of Himachal Pradesh used 87 different plant species with 51 different families to treat jaundice and contribute to healthcare. These plants demonstrated the presence of several phytochemicals in them and displayed phenolic and flavonoid compounds with hepatoprotective properties in most of the experimental studies (in vivo) performed with these plants. With antioxidant potential, the phenolic and flavonoid compounds are recognized, and due to this property, these plants have been shown to be important in curing jaundice. Aloe vera, Bauhinia variegata, Berberis aristata, Emblica officinalis, and Terminalia chebula are some of these herbs, which suggest the ethnopharmacological approach to treating jaundice with the hepatoprotective operation.
There is a lot of knowledge in the latest literature on the use of various plants for treating jaundice. Nevertheless, very few studies are carried out on the scientific validation of medicinal plants by means of biochemical, clinical, and pharmacological screening to validate the jaundice healing folklore medicine. In the future, it is, therefore, very important to pursue steps that do not deviate from shifting the view of tribal people toward their indigenous belief in the treatment of jaundice to develop successful drugs or to discover new potential sources of drugs. In addition, nano-formulation of plant extracts also improves their therapeutic significance [143,144], and it is also possible to use nano-formulation of herbal plants as an alternative and refining conventional knowledge for the potential cure of jaundice.

Author Contributions

D.R., R.D. and A.S. wrote the first draft of the manuscript. R.D. and H.K. contributed to making the figures and providing the literature. R.V., D.K., M.V., K.K. and S.P. revised and improved the first draft. All authors have seen and agreed on the final submitted version of the manuscript.


It was supported by the UHK project VT2019-2021. This study was also partially supported by grants from the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic (FN HK 00179906) and the Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic (PROGRES Q40).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Thakur, K.; Bassi, K.; Sood, K. Textbook of Ethnobotany; S. Dinesh & Co.: Jalandhar, India, 2015; pp. 1–70. [Google Scholar]
  2. Aswal, B.S.; Mehrotra, B.N. Flora of Lahaul-Spiti; Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh: Dehradun, India, 1994; pp. 10–15. [Google Scholar]
  3. Joshi, K.L. Geography of Himachal Pradesh; National Book Trust: New Delhi, India, 1987; pp. 220–222.
  4. Abu-Rabia, A. Urinary diseases and ethnobotany among pastoral nomads in the Middle East. J. Ethnobiol. 2005, 1, 1–3. [Google Scholar]
  5. Sharma, J.; Gairola, S.; Gaur, R.D.; Painuli, R.M. The treatment of jaundice with medicinal plants in indigenous communities of the sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2012, 143, 262–291. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Negi, P.S.; Subramani, S.P. Ethnobotanical study in the village Chhitkul of Sangla valley, district Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh. J. Non-Timber For. Prod. 2002, 9, 113–120. [Google Scholar]
  7. Birhane, E.; Aynekulu, E.; Mekuria, W.; Endale, D. Management, use and ecology of medicinal plants in the degraded dry lands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. J. Med. Plants Res. 2011, 5, 308–319. [Google Scholar]
  8. Mesfin, K.; Tekle, G.; Tesfay, T. Ethnobotanical study of traditional medicinal plants used by indigenous people of Gemad district, Northern Ethiopia. J. Med. Plants. 2013, 1, 32–37. [Google Scholar]
  9. Suriyavathana, M.; Jeevitha, M.; Aranganathan, J. In vitro antioxidant profile of Justicia tranquebariensis. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. 2011, 4, 4259–4261. [Google Scholar]
  10. Yadav, R.S.; Agarwala, M. Phytochemical analysis of some medicinal plants. J. Phytol. 2011, 3, 10–14. [Google Scholar]
  11. Chauhan, N.S. Important medicinal and aromatic plants of Himachal Pradesh. Indian For. 2003, 129, 979–998. [Google Scholar]
  12. Verma, R.; Parkash, V.; Kumar, D. Ethno-medicinal uses of some plants of Kanag hill in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 2012, 3, 319–322. [Google Scholar]
  13. Baqar, S.R. Text Book of Economic Botany; Ferozsons Ltd.: Rawalpindi, Pakistan, 2001; pp. 23–100. [Google Scholar]
  14. Abbasi, A.M.; Khan, M.A.; Ahmad, M.; Zafar, M.; Khan, H.; Muhammad, N.; Sultana, S. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis based on socio-economic documentation. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2009, 8, 1644–1650. [Google Scholar]
  15. Janghel, V.; Patel, P.; Chandel, S.S. Plants used for the treatment of icterus (jaundice) in central India: A review. Ann. Hepatol. 2019, 18, 658–672. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Riva, M.A.; Riva, E.; Spicci, M.; Strazzabosco, M.; Giovannini, M.; Cesana, G. “The city of Hepar”: Rituals, gastronomy, and politics at the origins of the modern names for the liver. J. Hepatol. 2011, 55, 1132–1136. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  17. Gao, B.; Bataller, R. Alcoholic liver disease: Pathogenesis and new therapeutic targets. Gastroenterology 2011, 141, 1572–1585. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  18. Rahim, Z.B.; Rahman, M.M.; Saha, D.; Hosen, S.Z.; Paul, S.; Kader, S. Ethnomedicinal plants used against jaundice in Bangladesh and its economical prospects. Bull. Pharma. Res. 2012, 2, 91–105. [Google Scholar]
  19. Feldman, A.G.; Sokol, R.J. Neonatal cholestasis. Neoreviews 2013, 14, e63–e73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  20. Sarkhel, S. Ethnomedicinal uses of some plants in treatment of jaundice by tribal communities of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. Open Access J. Med. Arom. Plants. 2015, 6, 43–48. [Google Scholar]
  21. Poduri, C.D. Jaundice: A brief historical perspective. Ann. Intern. Med. 2016, 13, 76–79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Ebrahimimd, S.; Ashkani-Esfahani, S.; Poormahmudibs, A. Investigating the efficacy of Zizyphus jujuba on neonatal jaundice. Iran J. Pediatr. 2011, 21, 320–324. [Google Scholar]
  23. Kumar, S.; Paul, R. Ethnomedicinal plants used for jaundice in Kangra district (Himachal Pradesh). J. Plant Dev. Sci. 2009, 1, 35–39. [Google Scholar]
  24. Kumar, N.; Choyal, R. Traditional use of some plants of Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh for the treatment of jaundice, hepatitis and other liver disorders. Int. J. Theor. Appl. Sci. 2012, 4, 201–205. [Google Scholar]
  25. Bharadwaj, J.; Seth, M.K. Medicinal plant resources of Bilaspur, Hamirpur and Una districts of Himachal Pradesh: An ethnobotanical enumeration. J. Med. Plants Stud. 2017, 5, 99–110. [Google Scholar]
  26. Thakur, M.; Asrani, R.K.; Thakur, S.; Sharma, P.K.; Patil, R.D.; Lal, B.; Parkash, O. Observations on traditional usage of ethnomedicinal plants in humans and animals of Kangra and Chamba districts of Himachal Pradesh in north-western Himalaya, India. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2016, 191, 280–300. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Singh, J.; Singh, J.; Sharma, D. Traditional wisdom to treat the most common ailments in Chopal region of Shimla District, Himachal Pradesh, India. Plant Arch. 2018, 18, 2759–2769. [Google Scholar]
  28. Kala, C.P. Medicinal plants of the high-altitude cold desert in India: Diversity, distribution and traditional uses. Int. J. Biodivers. Sci. Ecosyst. Serv. Manag. 2006, 2, 43–56. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Kaur, M.; Singhal, V.K.; Singh, J. Use of some ethnomedicinal herbs by the natives of Solang Valley, Kullu District, Himachal Pradesh. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. 2017, 9, 222–227. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  30. Sekar, K.C.; Srivastava, S.K. Traditional uses of plants in curing jaundice in the Pin Valley National Park, Himachal Pradesh. Indian J. Tradit. Know. 2005, 4, 314–316. [Google Scholar]
  31. Singh, K.N.; Lal, B. Ethnomedicines used against four common ailments by the tribal communities of Lahaul-Spiti in western Himalaya. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008, 115, 147–159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Rani, S.; Rana, J.C.; Rana, P.K. Ethnomedicinal plants of Chamba district, Himachal Pradesh, India. J. Med. Plants Res. 2013, 7, 3147–3157. [Google Scholar]
  33. Kaur, I.; Sharma, S.; Lal, S. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for different diseases in Mandi district, Himachal Pradesh. Int. J. Res. Pharm. Chem. 2011, 1, 1167–1171. [Google Scholar]
  34. Rani, S.; Rana, J.C.; Jeelani, S.M.; Gupta, R.C.; Kumari, S. Ethnobotanical notes on 30 medicinal polypetalous plants of district Kangra of Himachal Pradesh. J. Med. Plants Res. 2013, 7, 1362–1369. [Google Scholar]
  35. Thakur, S. Medicinal plants used by tribal inhabitants of Sirmour district, Himachal Pradesh. Indian J. Sci. Res. 2011, 2, 125–127. [Google Scholar]
  36. Verma, S.; Chauhan, N.S. Indigenous medicinal plants knowledge of Kunihar forest division, district Solan. J. Tradit. Know. 2007, 6, 494–497. [Google Scholar]
  37. Kumar, G.; Kumar, V.; Thakur, K. Some overlooked Ethno-medicinal plants of district Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh (India). CPUH Res. J. 2018, 3, 116–123. [Google Scholar]
  38. Singh, K.J.; Thakur, A.K. Medicinal plants of the Shimla hills, Himachal Pradesh: A survey. Int. J. Herbal Med. 2014, 2, 118–127. [Google Scholar]
  39. Chand, R.; Kaur, R.; Kaur, A.; Kumar, V.; Nirmala, C.; Singh, A.N. Assessment of ethnomedicinal plant diversity of Una and Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh, India: An ethno-ecological approach. Ann. Plant Sci. 2016, 5, 1475–1490. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  40. Rani, S.; Rana, J.C. Ethnobotanical uses of some plants of Bhattiyat block in district Chamba, Himachal Pradesh (Western Himalaya). Ethnobot. Res. Appl. 2014, 12, 407–414. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  41. Boktapa, N.R.; Sharma, A.K. Wild medicinal plants used by local communities of Manali, Himachal Pradesh, India. Ethnobot. Leaflets. 2010, 4, 259–267. [Google Scholar]
  42. Rana, M.S.; Samant, S.S. Diversity, indigenous uses and conservation status of medicinal plants in Manali wildlife sanctuary, North western Himalaya. J. Tradit. Know. 2011, 10, 439–459. [Google Scholar]
  43. Rahman, A.M. Ethno-medicinal practices for the treatment of asthma, diuretic, jaundice, piles, rheumatism and vomiting at the village Abdullahpur under Akkelpur Upazilla of Joypurhat district, Bangladesh. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 2014, 1, 4–8. [Google Scholar]
  44. Amiri, M.S.; Jabbarzadeh, P.; Akhondi, M. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by indigenous people in Zangelanlo district, Northeast Iran. J. Med. Plants Res. 2012, 6, 749–753. [Google Scholar]
  45. Edeoga, H.O.; Okwu, D.E.; Mbaebie, B.O. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2005, 4, 685–688. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Njoku, V.O.; Obi, C.; Onyema, O.M. Phytochemical constituents of some selected medicinal plants. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2011, 10, 15020–15024. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  47. Tewari, D.; Mocan, A.; Parvanov, E.D.; Sah, A.N.; Nabavi, S.M.; Huminiecki, L.; Atanasov, A.G. Ethnopharmacological approaches for therapy of jaundice: Part II. Highly used plant species from Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae, and Fabaceae families. Front. Pharmacol. 2017, 8, 519. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  48. Nascimento, G.G.; Locatelli, J.; Freitas, P.C.; Silva, G.L. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Braz. J. Microbiol. 2000, 31, 247–256. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Bhat, V.S.; Nasavatl, D.D.; Mardikar, B.R. Adhatoda vasica-an ayurvedic medicinal plant. Drug Dev. Res. 1978, 15, 6–10. [Google Scholar]
  50. Pathak, R.R. Therapeutic Guide to Ayurvedic Medicine: A Hand Book of Ayurvedic Medicine; Shree Baidyanath Ayurved Bhawan Pvt. Ltd.: Patna, India, 1970; pp. 25–330. [Google Scholar]
  51. Irshad, A.H.; Pervaiz, A.H.; Abrar, Y.B.; Fahelboum, I.; Awen, B.Z. Antibacterial activity of Berberis lycium root extract. Trakia J. Sci. 2013, 1, 88–90. [Google Scholar]
  52. Pei-Gen, X.I.A.O.; Feng-Peng, W.A.N.G.; Feng, G.A.O.; Lu-Ping, Y.A.N.; Dong-Lin, C.H.E.N.; Yong, L.I. A pharmacophylogenetic study of Aconitum L. (Ranunculaceae) from China. J. Syst. Evol. 2005, 44, 1–46. [Google Scholar]
  53. Ranjan, V.; Vats, M.; Gupta, N.; Sardana, S. Antidiabetic potential of whole plant of Adiantum capillus veneris linn. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Int. J. Curr. Pharm. Res. 2014, 6, 341–347. [Google Scholar]
  54. Ruhil, S.; Balhara, M.; Dhankhar, S.; Chhillar, A.K. Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa: A potential source of phytomedicines. J. Med. Plant Res. 2011, 5, 1497–1507. [Google Scholar]
  55. Mathela, C.S.; Padalia, R.C.; Joshi, R.K. Variability in fragrance constituents of Himalayan Tanacetum species: Commercial potential. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants 2008, 5, 503–513. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. Lakshmi, P.T.V.; Rajalakshmi, P. Identification of phyto components and its biological activities of aloe vera through the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Pharm. Res. 2011, 2, 247–249. [Google Scholar]
  57. Brahmachari, G.; Gorai, D.; Roy, R. Argemone mexicana: Chemical and pharmacological aspects. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 2013, 23, 559–567. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  58. Mushtaq, S.; Aga, M.A.; Qazi, P.H.; Ali, M.N.; Shah, A.M.; Lone, S.; Hussain, A.; Shah, Z.H. Isolation, characterization and HPLC quantification of compounds from Aquilegia fragrans Benth: Their in vitro antibacterial activities against bovine mastitis pathogens. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2016, 178, 9–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. Bhardwaj, D.; Kaushik, N. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies in genus Berberis. Phytochem Rev. 2012, 11, 523–542. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  60. Joshi, H.; Saxena, G.K.; Singh, V.; Arya, E.; Singh, R.P. Phytochemical investigation, isolation and characterization of betulin from bark of Betula utilis. Res. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 2013, 2, 145–151. [Google Scholar]
  61. Mishra, S.; Aeri, V.; Gaur, P.K.; Jachak, S.M. Phytochemical, therapeutic, and ethnopharmacological overview for a traditionally important herb: Boerhavia diffusa Linn. Biomed. Res. Int. 2014, 2014, 808302. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  62. Karthikairaj, K.; Sevarkodiyone, S.P.; Pavaraj, M.; Balaji, S.; Senthikumar, P.; Kalaivani, A. Effect of organic amendments on the level of chemical constituents of redgram, Cajanus cajan infected with root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica. Middle East J. Sci. Res. 2012, 12, 1068–1071. [Google Scholar]
  63. Al-Snafi, A.E. The chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Capsella bursa-pastoris-a review. Int. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2015, 5, 76–81. [Google Scholar]
  64. Sunil, P.; Sanjay, Y.; Vinod, S. Pharmacognostical investigation and standardization of capsicum annum L. roots. Int. J. Pharmacogn. 2012, 4, 21–24. [Google Scholar]
  65. Alorkpa, E.J.; Boadi, N.O.; Badu, M.; Saah, S.A. Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of assorted Carica papaya leaves in Ghana. J. Med. Plant Res. 2016, 4, 193–198. [Google Scholar]
  66. Izhar, S.; Ahmed, D. Carissa opaca: A plant with great potential for future drugs for degenerative and infectious diseases. Chem. Select. 2016, 1, 3005–3011. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  67. Sekar, T.; Arumugam, T.; Ayyanar, M.; Pillai, J. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of leaf and callus extracts of Centella asiatica. Bangladesh J. Pharmacol. 2011, 6, 55–60. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  68. Arora, M.; Singh, S.; Kaur, P. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation of selected seeds of ‘Cicer arietinum’Linn. seeds from Roopnagar, Punab. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Invent. 2013, 2, 18–29. [Google Scholar]
  69. Prajapati, R.; Kalariya, M.; Umbarkar, R.; Parmar, S.; Sheth, N. Colocasia esculenta: A potent indigenous plant. Int. J. Nutr. Pharmacol. 2011, 1, 90–96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Xiao, L.G.; Zhang, S.C.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, L.; Zhang, H.L.; Yu, Q.; An, L.K. Sesquiterpenoids from the aerial parts of Conyza japonica and their inhibitory activity against the nitric oxide production. Fitoterapia 2020, 142, 104473. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  71. Zhang, Y.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, J.; Chen, S.; Lin, X. Chemical constituents of Crepis flexuosa. Chin. J. Appl. Environ. Biol. 2011, 4, 509–511. [Google Scholar]
  72. Ahmad, A.; Tandon, S.; Xuan, T.D.; Nooreen, Z. A review on phytoconstituents and biological activities of Cuscuta species. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2017, 92, 772–795. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  73. Das, J.; Chowdhury, A.; Biswas, K.; Karmakar, K.U.; Sharif, R.S.; Raihan, Z.S.; Muhit, A.M. Cytotoxicity and antifungal activities of ethanolic and chloroform extracts of Cucumis sativus Linn (Cucurbitaceae) leaves and stems. Res. J. Phytochem. 2012, 6, 25–30. [Google Scholar]
  74. Soni, P.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Dwivedi, J.; Soni, V. Pharmacological properties of Datura stramonium L. as a potential medicinal tree: An overview. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2012, 2, 1002–1008. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  75. Variya, C.B.; Bakrania, K.; Patel, S.S. Emblica officinalis (Amla): A review for its phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal uses and medicinal potentials with respect to molecular mechanisms. Pharmacol. Res. 2016, 1, 180–200. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  76. Li, E.T.; Liu, K.H.; Zang, M.H.; Zhang, X.L.; Jiang, H.Q.; Zhou, H.L.; Wu, Y. Chemical constituents from Euphorbia hirta. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 2015, 62, 204–207. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Yamamoto, Y.; Mizuguchi, R.; Yamada, Y. Chemical constituents of cultured cells of Euphorbia tirucalli and E. millii. Plant Cell Rep. 1981, 1, 29–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  78. Al-Snafi, A.E. The pharmacology of Equisetum arvense-A review. IOSR J. Pharm. 2017, 7, 31–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  79. Lalsare, S.; Verma, P.K.; Khatak, M.; Ranjan, S.; Rajurakar, S.; Gurav, S.S. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity of Flacourtia ramontchi leaves. Drug Dev. Res. 2011, 3, 308–313. [Google Scholar]
  80. Ismail, M.; Hussain, J.; Khan, A.U.; Khan, A.L.; Ali, L.; Khan, F.U.; Khan, Z.A.; Niaz, U.; Lee, I.J. Antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, and enzyme inhibitory activities of Geranium wallichianum. Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2012, 2012, 305906. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  81. Shabir, M.; Agnihotri, P.; Husain, D.; Tiwari, J.K.; Husain, T. On the current status of the genus Gentiana L. (Gentianaceae) in India. Pleione 2017, 11, 16–24. [Google Scholar]
  82. Painuly, P.; Varma, N.; Tandon, J.S. Constituents of Geum elatum. J. Nat. Prod. 1984, 47, 181–189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  83. Al-Snafi, A.E. Pharmacological and therapeutic activities of Hedera helix-a review. IOSR J. Pharm. 2018, 8, 41–53. [Google Scholar]
  84. Kapoor, D.N.; Singh, G.; Kaur, T. A review on pharmacognostic, phytochemical and pharmacological data of various species of Hippophae (Sea buckthorn). Int. J. Green Pharm. 2017, 11, S62–S74. [Google Scholar]
  85. Shah, P.A.; Parmar, M.Y.; Thakkar, V.T.; Gandhi, T.R. Hepatoprotective activity of Hordeum vulgare Linn. seeds against ethanol-induced liver damage in rats. Int. J. Green Pharm. 2009, 3, 38–43. [Google Scholar]
  86. Singh, T.; Singh, O.; Singh, H. Adhatoda vasica Nees: Phytochemical and pharmacological profile. J. Nat. Prod. 2011, 1, 29–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  87. Naidu, J.R.; Ismail, R.B.; Yeng, C.; Sasidharan, S.; Kumar, P. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the crude methanolic extracts of Mentha spicata. J. Phytol. 2012, 4, 13–18. [Google Scholar]
  88. Yang, Y.; Yang, X.; Xu, B.; Zeng, G.; Tan, J.; He, X.; Zhou, Y. Chemical constituents of Morus alba L. and their inhibitory effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Fitoterapia 2014, 98, 222–227. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  89. Mallhi, T.H.; Qadir, M.I.; Khan, Y.H. Determination of phytoconstituents of n-hexane extract of leaves of Morus nigra and evaluation of their effects on biochemical and histopathological parameters in paracetamol intoxicated mice liver. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. 2018, 54, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  90. Dev, L.R.; Ranjeeta, P.; Anurag, M.; Rajiv, G. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies of bark of Oroxylum indicum. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 2010, 2, 297–303. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  91. Sahidin, I.; Bahrun, A.; Taufik, M.; Mahatva Yodha, A.W.; Sabandar, C.W.; Imran, I.; Kadidae, L.O.; Diantini, A. Chemical constituents of Persicaria sagittata (L.) H. gross: Antioxidant activity and chemotaxonomy significance. Jundishapur J. Nat. Pharm. Prod. 2019, 15, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  92. Samali, A.; Florence, D.T.; Odeniran, O.A.; Cordelia, O.N. Evaluation of chemical constituents of Phyllanthus niruri. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2012, 6, 125–128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  93. Rathee, D.; Rathee, P.; Rathee, S.; Rathee, D. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Picrorrhiza kurroa, an Indian traditional plant used to treat chronic diarrhoea. Arab. J. Chem. 2016, 9, 1307–1313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  94. Shiojima, K.; Masuda, K.; Ooishi, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Ageta, H. Composite constituents: New migrated gammacerane triterpenoids from roots of Picris hieracioides subsp. japonica. Tetrahedron Lett. 1989, 30, 6873–6874. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  95. Bibi, Y.; Zia, M.; Qayyum, A. An overview of Pistacia integerrima a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities and phytochemistry. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 2015, 28, 1009–1013. [Google Scholar]
  96. Malik, M.A.; Srivastava, P.; Ahmad, S.B. Quantitative estimation of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of Podophyllum hexandrum. Int. J. Curr. Sci. 2018, 6, 1152–1155. [Google Scholar]
  97. Moorthy, K.; Punitha, T.; Vinodhini, R.; Thippan, B.; Sureshkumar, B.T.; Vijayalakshmi, P.; Thajuddin, N. Antimicrobial activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of Punica granatum Linn. (Pericarp). J. Med. Plants Res. 2013, 7, 474–479. [Google Scholar]
  98. Poonam, V.; Raunak; Kumar, G.; Reddy, L.C.S.; Jain, R.; Sharma, S.; Prasad, A.K.; Parmar, V. Chemical constituents of the genus Prunus and their medicinal properties. Curr. Med. Chem. 2011, 18, 3758–3824. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  99. Janjua, S.; Shahid, M. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antibacterial activity of root peel extract of Raphanus sativus L. var niger. Adv. Med. Plant Res. 2013, 1, 1–7. [Google Scholar]
  100. Ribeiro, P.R.; de Castro, R.D.; Fernandez, L.G. Chemical constituents of the oilseed crop Ricinus communis and their pharmacological activities: A review. Ind Crops Prod. 2016, 91, 358–376. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  101. Raj, J.; Basant, B.; Murugan, P.M.; da Silva, J.A.T.; Saurav, K.; Chaurasia, O.P.; Singh, S.B. Screening phytochemical constituents of 21 medicinal plants of trans-Himalayan region. Med. Aromat. Plant Sci. Biotechnol. 2010, 4, 90–93. [Google Scholar]
  102. Verma, A.; Kumar, B.; Alam, P.; Singh, V.; Gupta, S.K. Rubia cordifolia—A review on pharmaconosy and phytochemistry. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 2016, 7, 2720–2731. [Google Scholar]
  103. Singh, A.; Lal, R.U.; Mukhtar, H.; Singh, P.S.; Shah, G.; Dhawan, R.K. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects. Phcog. Rev. 2015, 9, 45–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  104. Kumar, P.S.; Patel, J.S.; Saraf, M.N. Mechanism of vasorelaxant activity of a fraction of root extract of Sesamum indicum Linn. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2008, 46, 457–464. [Google Scholar]
  105. Chauhan, R.; Ruby, K.M.; Shori, A.; Dwivedi, J. Solanum nigrum with dynamic therapeutic role: A review. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 2012, 15, 65–71. [Google Scholar]
  106. Ahmed, M.M.; Andleeb, S.; Saqib, F.; Hussain, M.; Khatun, M.N.; Ahmad, B.; Rahman, H. Diuretic and serum electrolyte regulation potential of aqueous methanolic extract of Solanum surattense fruit validates its folkloric use in dysuria. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2016, 16, 2–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  107. Khanzada, S.K.; Shaikh, W.; Sofia, S.; Kazi, T.G.; Usmanghani, K.; Kabir, A.; Sheerazi, T.H. Chemical constituents of Tamarindus indica L. medicinal plant in Sindh. Pak. J. Bot. 2008, 40, 2553–2559. [Google Scholar]
  108. Kumar, N.; Khurana, S.M. Phytochemistry and medicinal potential of the Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Bahera). J. Nat. Prod. Res. 2018, 9, 97–107. [Google Scholar]
  109. Upadhyay, A.; Agrahari, P.; Singh, D.K. A review on the pharmacological aspects of Terminalia chebula. Int. J. Pharmacol. 2014, 10, 289–298. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  110. Sharma, N.; Kumar, V.; Chopra, M.P.; Sourirajan, A.; Dev, K. Thalictrum foliolosum: A lesser unexplored medicinal herb from the himalayan region as a source of valuable phytocompounds. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2020, 255, 112736. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  111. Shervani, Z.A.; Mishra, P.K. Phytochemical study of Tinospora cordifolia grown on three different soil conditions. Res. J. Life Sci. Bioinform. Pharm. Chem. Sci. 2017, 5, 810–815. [Google Scholar]
  112. Vigh, S.; Cziaky, Z.; Sinka, L.T.; Pribac, C.; Moş, L.; Turcuş, V.; Remenyik, J.; Mathe, E. Analysis of phytoconstituent profile of fenugreek–Trigonella foenuem-graecum L.-seed extracts. Studia Univ. Babes-Bolyai Chem. 2017, 62, 145–166. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  113. Akbar, S. Vernonia anthelmintica Willd. (Asteraceae/Compositae). In Handbook of 200 Medicinal Plants; Akbar, S., Ed.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2020; pp. 1895–1899. [Google Scholar]
  114. Chandra, D.; Kohli, G.; Prasad, K.; Bisht, G.; Punetha, V.D.; Khetwal, K.S.; Devrani, M.K.; Pandey, H.K. Phytochemical and ethnomedicinal uses of family Violaceae. Curr. Res. Chem. 2015, 7, 44–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  115. Chandra, D.; Kohli, G.; Prasad, K.; Bisht, G.; Punetha, V.D.; Pandey, H.K. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Viola serpens from Bageshwar (Shama), Uttarakhad, India. J. Med. Plant Res. 2017, 11, 513–517. [Google Scholar]
  116. Das, P.K.; Goswami, S.; Chinniah, A.; Panda, N.; Banerjee, S.; Sahu, N.P.; Achari, B. Woodfordia fruticosa: Traditional uses and recent findings. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007, 110, 189–199. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  117. Dhalaria, R.; Verma, R.; Kumar, D.; Puri, S.; Tapwal, A.; Kumar, V.; Nepovimova, E.; Kuca, K. Bioactive compounds of edible fruits with their anti-aging properties: A comprehensive review to prolong human life. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 1123. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  118. Shantabi, L.; Jagetia, G.C.; Vabeiryureilai, M.; Lalrinzuali, K. Phytochemical screening of certain medicinal plants of Mizoram, India and their folklore use. J. Biodivers. Biopros. Dev. 2014, 1, 1–9. [Google Scholar]
  119. Bodakhe, S.H.; Ram, A. Hepatoprotective properties of Bauhinia variegata bark extract. Yakugaku zasshi. Farumashia 2007, 127, 1503–1507. [Google Scholar]
  120. Dehar, N.A.; Walia, R.A.; Verma, R.B.; Pandey, P.I. Hepatoprotective activity of Berberis aristata root extract against chemical induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 2013, 6, 53–56. [Google Scholar]
  121. Bera, T.K.; Chatterjee, K.; De, D.; Ali, K.M.; Jana, K.; Maiti, S.; Ghosh, D. Hepatoprotective activity of livshis, a polyherbal formulation in CCl4-Induced hepatotoxic male Wistar rats: A toxicity screening approach. Biosciences 2011, 3, 103–110. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  122. Setty, S.R.; Quereshi, A.A.; Swamy, A.V.; Patil, T.; Prakash, T.; Prabhu, K.; Gouda, A.V. Hepatoprotective activity of Calotropis procera flowers against paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats. Fitoterapia 2007, 78, 451–455. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  123. Aghel, N.; Rashidi, I.; Mombeini, A. Hepatoprotective activity of Capparis spinosa root bark against CCl4 induced hepatic damage in mice. Iran J. Pharm. Res. 2007, 6, 285–290. [Google Scholar]
  124. Adeneye, A.A.; Olagunju, J.A.; Banjo, A.A.; Abdul, S.F.; Sanusi, O.A.; Sanni, O.O.; Osarodion, B.A.; Shonoiki, O.E. The aqueous seed extract of Carica papaya Linn. prevents carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Int. J. Appl. Res. Nat. Prod. 2009, 2, 19–32. [Google Scholar]
  125. Sahreen, S.; Khan, M.R.; Khan, R.A. Hepatoprotective effects of methanol extract of Carissa opaca leaves on CCl4-induced damage in rat. BMC Comp. Alt. Med. 2011, 11, 48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  126. Tuse, T.A.; Harle, U.N.; Bore, V.V. Hepatoprotective activity of Colocasia antiquorum against experimentally induced liver injury in rats. Malays. J. Pharma. Sci. 2009, 7, 99–112. [Google Scholar]
  127. Dubey, S.; Mehta, S. Hepatoprotective activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. Plant against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in rats. Food Bio. Med. Sci. 2014, 1, 108–111. [Google Scholar]
  128. Jyothi, T.M.; Shankariah, M.M.; Prabhu, K.; Lakshminarasu, S.; Srinivasa, G.M.; Ramachandra, S.S. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Euphorbia tirucalli. Iran. J. Pharma. Ther. 2008, 7, 25–30. [Google Scholar]
  129. Adil, A.; Khan, S.S.; Naeem, S.; Ikram, R.; Jaffer, N. Evaluation of acute and chronic hepatoprotective activity of Hedera helix L. Aqueous leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat model. Pak. J. Phytopathol. 2017, 34, 1–15. [Google Scholar]
  130. Afzal, U.; Gulfraz, M.; Hussain, S.; Malik, F.; Maqsood, S.; Shah, I.; Mahmood, S. Hepatoprotective effects of Justicia adhatoda L. against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury in Swiss albino mice. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. 2013, 7, 8–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  131. Hogade, M.G.; Patil, K.S.; Wadkar, G.H.; Mathapati, S.S.; Dhumal, P.B. Hepatoprotective activity of Morus alba (Linn.) leaves extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Afr. J. Pharma. Pharmacogn. 2010, 4, 731–734. [Google Scholar]
  132. Mallhi, T.H.; Qadir, M.I.; Khan, Y.H.; Ali, M. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Morus nigra against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Bangladesh J. Pharmacol. 2014, 9, 60–66. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  133. Tenpe, C.R.; Upaganlawar, A.; Burle, S.; Yeole, Y.G. In vitro antioxidant and preliminary hepatoprotective activity of Oroxylum indicum Vent leaf extracts. Pharmacologyonline 2009, 1, 35–43. [Google Scholar]
  134. Harish, R.; Shivanandappa, T. Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of Phyllanthus niruri. Food Chem. 2006, 95, 180–185. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  135. Ganie, S.A.; Zargar, B.A.; Masood, A.; Zargar, M.A. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of rhizome of Podophyllum hexandrum against carbon tetra chloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Biomedicine 2013, 26, 209–221. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  136. Soni, M.; Tanwar, Y.S. Hepatoprotective activity of Prunus domestica fruit extract against paracetamol-induced liver damage in Albino rats. J. Crit. Rev. 2020, 7, 4729–4734. [Google Scholar]
  137. Kumar, M.; Dandapat, S.; Sinha, M.P. Hepatoprotective activity of Punica granatum leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Balneo 2018, 9, 24–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  138. Visen, P.S.; Shukla, B.; Patnaik, G.K.; Tripathi, S.C.; Kulshreshtha, D.K.; Srimal, R.C.; Dhawan, B.N. Hepatoprotective activity of Ricinus communis leaves. Int. J. Pharmacogn. 1992, 30, 241–250. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  139. Elhag, R.A.M.; El Badwi, S.M.A.; Bakhiet, A.O.; Galal, M. Hepatoprotective activity of Solanum nigrum extracts on chemically induced liver damage in rats. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health 2011, 3, 45–50. [Google Scholar]
  140. Meena, S.Z.; Rahman, M.A.; Bagga, P.; Mujahid, M. Hepatoprotective activity of Tamarindus indica Linn stem bark ethanolic extract against hepatic damage induced by co-administration of antitubercular drugs isoniazid and rifampicin in Sprague Dawley rats. J. Basic Clin. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2018, 30, 131–137. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  141. Marslin, G.; Prakash, J. Hepatoprotective Activity of Thalictrum foliolosum (Ranunculaceae) Root Ethanolic extract. Int. J. Life Sci. Pharma. Res. 2020, 10, 8–11. [Google Scholar]
  142. Kanter, M.; Coskun, O.; Budancamanak, M. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats. World J. Gastroenterol. 2005, 11, 6684–6688. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  143. Kumar, H.; Bhardwaj, K.; Dhanjal, D.S.; Nepovimova, E.; Șen, F.; Regassa, H.; Singh, R.; Verma, R.; Kumar, V.; Kumar, D.; et al. Fruit extract mediated green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles: A new avenue in pomology applications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 8458. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  144. Kumar, H.; Bhardwaj, K.; Kuca, K.; Kalia, A.; Nepovimova, E.; Verma, R.; Kumar, D. Flower-Based green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles: Applications beyond fragrance. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 766. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
Figure 1. Bilirubin metabolism or pathophysiology of jaundice [15].
Figure 1. Bilirubin metabolism or pathophysiology of jaundice [15].
Plants 10 00232 g001
Figure 2. Types of jaundice according to its pathophysiology [15].
Figure 2. Types of jaundice according to its pathophysiology [15].
Plants 10 00232 g002
Figure 3. Map of India, showing districts of Himachal Pradesh (district names are added in red font where maximum number of medicinal plants were reported for jaundice treatment).
Figure 3. Map of India, showing districts of Himachal Pradesh (district names are added in red font where maximum number of medicinal plants were reported for jaundice treatment).
Plants 10 00232 g003
Figure 4. Analysis of the data showing a total estimation of plant parts used for the treatment of jaundice [8,44].
Figure 4. Analysis of the data showing a total estimation of plant parts used for the treatment of jaundice [8,44].
Plants 10 00232 g004
Table 1. Ethnomedicinal plants used to cure jaundice by traditional healers in Himachal Pradesh.
Table 1. Ethnomedicinal plants used to cure jaundice by traditional healers in Himachal Pradesh.
Botanical NameLocal NameFamilyRegionData Source
Justicia adhatoda L.Basuti, ArushaAcanthaceaeKangra, Hamirpur[23,24]
Adiantum capillus-veneris L.Dooman tuliAdiantaceaeHamirpur[24]
Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex BrandisKakar SinghiAnacardiaceaeHamirpur[24]
Carissa opaca Stapf. ex Haines.Karaunda, GarnuApocynaceaeKangra, Mandi, and Una[25]
Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand.AakApocynaceaeKangra and Chamba[26]
Colocasia antiquorum SchottGhandiale, ArbiAraceaeKangra[23]
Colocasia esculanata (L.) SchottArbi kuchawariAraceaeHamirpur[24]
Hedera helix L.Kannauri (Bail)AraliaceaeShimla[27]
Ajania tibetica (Hook.f. and Thomson) TzvelevTibetan TansyAsteraceaeLahul and Spiti[28]
Crepis flexuosa (Ledeb.) Benth. ex C.B. ClarkeHoma-silliAsteraceaeLahul and Spiti[28]
Conyza japonica (Thunb.) Less. ex Less.GaadiAsteraceaeKullu (Solang Valley)[29]
Picris hieracioides subsp. japonica (Thunb.) Hand-Mazz.CherakpaAsteraceaeLahul and Spiti[30]
Scorzonera divaricata Turcz.Himalayan viper grassAsteraceaeLahul and Spiti[31]
Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg.Dudhli, DulalAsteraceaeKangra, Hamirpur[23,24]
Youngia tenuifolia (Willd.) Babc. and StebbinsSeertikAsteraceaeLahul and Spiti[28]
Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd.KaliziriAsteraceaeShimla[27]
Berberis aristata DC.Kashmal, ChunchariBerberidaceaeKangra, Mandi, Shimla, Chamba[23,27,32,33]
Berberis ceratophylla G. DonKashmalBerberidaceaeKangra[34]
Berberis lycium RoyleKashmal, DauhaldiBerberidaceaeKangra, Hamirpur, Shimla, Chamba, and Sirmour[23,24,27,32,35]
Berberis chitria Buch. -Ham. ex. Lindl.KashmalBerberidaceaeShimla[27]
Betula utilis D. DonBhojpatraBetulaceaeKangra and Chamba[23,32]
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.Jangli sarsonBrassicaceaeKullu (Solang Valley)[29]
Raphanus sativus L.MuliBrassicaceaeKangra, Hamirpur[23,24]
Oroxylum indicum (L.) KurzTatpalngaBignoniaceaeKangra[23]
Cassia fistula L.Kyar, Alsi ki tatCaesalpinaceaeKangra[34]
Tamarindus indica L.ImliCaesalpinaceaeHamirpur[24]
Capparis spinosa L.Kabra findus roseCapparaceaeLahul and Spiti[31]
Carica papaya L.Pump, PapitaCaricaceaeKangra[23]
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.BehadaCombretaceaeSolan, Kangra[23,36]
Terminalia chebula Retz.HaradCombretaceaeKangra, Solan (Kunihar forest divison), and Shimla[23,27,36]
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.Akash belConvalvulaceaeHamirpur, Bilaspur, Solan (Kunihar forest divison)[24,27,37]
Cucumis sativus L.KheeraCucurbitaceaeHamirpur[24]
Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. NelsonSea-buck thornElaegnaceaeLahul and Spiti[31]
Hippophae tibetana Schltdl.Star bnElaegnaceaeLahul and Spiti[31]
Emblica officinalis Gaertn.Amla, AmlikaEuphorbiaceaeKangra, Shimla, Bilaspur, Chamba, Hamirpur, Sirmour, Solan, Una[23,24,25,32,37,38]
Euphorbia hirta L.DoodhliEuphorbiaceaeHamirpur[24]
Euphorbia tirucalli L.ToharEuphorbiaceaeUna, Hamirpur[39]
Mallotus philippinensis Mull.Arg.Kamla tree, KumkumEuphorbiaceaeKunihar forest division, Solan[36]
Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. WebsterChota amla, Bhoomi amblaEuphorbiaceaeKangra[23]
Ricinus communis L.ErandEuphorbiaceaeKangra[23]
Equisetum arvense L.GirthanEquisetaceaeKangra[23]
Bauhinia variegata L.Karale, KachnarFabaceaeKangra[23]
Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.Arhar, PigeonpeaFabaceaeChamba[40]
Cicer microphyllum Benth.Chana, CowpeaFabaceaeLahul and Spiti[28]
Trigonella emodi Benth.Methi, FenugreekFabaceaeLahul and Spiti[31]
Flacourtia ramontchi L.Governor’s plum, BilangraFlacourtiaceaeBilaspur, Chamba, Kangra, Hamirpur, Sirmour (Nahan), Solan, Una[25]
Gentiana kurrroo RoyleKanauri (Bail)GentianaceaeShimla[27]
Gentiana tubiflora (G. Don) Griseb.Tikta anupo MensaGentianaceaeLahul and Spiti[30]
Gentiana leucomelaena Maxim.Buksuk shipoGentianaceaeLahul and Spiti[30]
Gentianopsis detonsa (Rottb.) MaChateekGentianaceaeLahul and Spiti[30,31]
Gentianopsis paludosa (Hook.f.) MaGyatheekGentianaceaeLahul and Spiti[30,31]
Gentianella moorcroftiana
(Wall. ex Griseb.)
Airy shawGentianaceaeLahul and Spiti[31]
Geranium nepalense Sw.TirahiGeraniaceaeManali[26]
Mentha spicata L.PudinaLamiaceaeKangra[23]
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.Kware, Ghritkumar, GavrapathaLiliaceaeKangra, Shimla[23,38]
Asparagus adscendens Roxb.SanspanLiliaceaeKangra[23]
Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) KurzDhoaien, DhaiLythraceaeKangra, Hamirpur[23,24]
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) MiersGiloe, Giloen, GuljaeMenispermaceaeKangra, Chamba[23,32]
Morus alba L.Chitta tootMoraceaeHamirpur, Bilaspur[24,37]
Morus nigra L.Kala tootMoraceaeHamirpur[24]
Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng.Mal bheduLamiaceaeKangra[23]
Boerhavia diffusa L.PunarnavaNyctaginaceaeUna and Hamirpur[39]
Argemone mexicana L.Kantili, Pili Kantili, BharbhandPapaveraceaeKangra, Hamirpur, and Sirmour[23,24,35]
Sesamum indicum L.TilPedaliaceaeHamirpur[24]
Polygonum tortuosum D. DonAgel davajPolygonaceaeLahul and Spiti[30]
Persicaria amplexicaulis (D. Don) Ronse Decr.Amli/kutryaPolygonaceaeChamba and Kangra[26]
Hordeum vulgare L.Jou, JouiPoaceaeHamirpur, Bilaspur[24,37]
Saccharum officinarum L.Ganna, KamandiPoaceaeKangra, Bilaspur, and Hamirpur[23,24,37]
Podophyllum hexandrum RoyleBankakdiPodophyllaceaeManali[41]
Punica granatum L.DaranPunicaceaeHamirpur[24]
Aquilegia fragrans Benth.ZadulRannunculaceaeKangra[34]
Aconitum rotundifolium Kar. and Kir.Atish, PatishRannunculaceaeLahul and Spiti[31]
Thalictrum foliolosum DC.Pili jari, ChabraRannunculaceaeShimla[27]
Geum elatum Wall. ex G. DonGyampar mendok, Turu silva MensaRosaceaeLahul and Spiti[30]
Prunus domestica L.alubhukhara, PalamRosaceaeHamirpur[24]
Rosa webbiana Wall. ex RoyleSeba, Webb’s roseRosaceaeLahul and Spiti[31]
Rubia manjith Roxb. ex FlemingJamithi, ManjitRubiaceaeManali[42]
Aegle marmelos (L.) CorreaBil, Bil patriRutaceaeHamirpur, Bilaspur[24,37]
Saxifraga flagellaris Willd.Spider plantSaxifragaceaeLahul and Spiti[28]
Picrorhiza kurroa Royl ex. Benth.Karru, KutkiScrophulariaceaeHamirpur, Manali, Chamba[24,32,41]
Capsicum annum L.Mircha, PippaliSolanaceaeKangra[23]
Datura stramonium L.DhaturaSolanaceaeManali[42]
Solanum nigrum L.Choote tamatter, MakoiSolanaceaeKangra, Hamirpur[23,24]
Solanum surattense Burm. f.KantkariSolanaceaeHamirpur[24]
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.Brahmi, MinkiUmblellifereaeKangra[23]
Urtica dioica L.Bichu buttiUrticaceaeManali[42]
Viola serpens Wall. ex Ging.BhanakshaViolaceaeHamirpur[24]
Table 2. Mode of use of ethnomedicinal plants for treating jaundice.
Table 2. Mode of use of ethnomedicinal plants for treating jaundice.
Botanical NamePlant Part UsedMode of UseReference
Aconitum rotundifoliumWhole plantPlant juice is taken orally along with an equal volume of water for five to seven days to cure jaundice.[31]
Adiantum capillusLeavesA decoction of fresh leaves is taken two times for seven days to cure jaundice.[24]
Aegle marmelosLeaves and fruitA decoction of leaves and unripe fruit is used to treat jaundice.[24]
Ajania tibeticaLeaves and flowerLeaves and flowers are used to cure jaundice.[28]
Aloe veraFleshy leavesThe pulp of the leaves is directly consumed by the patient for two weeks to cure jaundice.[23]
Argemone mexicanaWhole plantYellow sap of the plant is used to treat jaundice.[24]
Asparagus adscendensRootsA decoction of roots (10–15 mL) is given for eight to ten days to cure jaundice.[23]
Aquilegia fragransSeedsA decoction of seeds is used to treat jaundice.[34]
Bauhinia variegataLeavesLeaves juice is taken for seven days for the treatment of jaundice.[23]
Berberis aristataNew leaves (twigs) and rootsNew leaves are directly consumed, and a decoction of ground roots (100 mL) is taken to cure jaundice.[23]
Berberis ceratophyllaRootsFresh roots are cut into small pieces and further shade-dried to make pills. These pills are consumed with “Kujja-Mishri” with water to cure jaundice.[34]
Berberis chitriaRootsA decoction of roots is used to treat jaundice.[27]
Berberis lyciumRootsA decoction of roots (80–100 mL) is given to cure jaundice.[23]
Betula utilisPapery barkA decoction of the bark is given to the patient for ten to twelve days to cure jaundice.[23]
Boerhavia diffusaWhole plantThe whole plant is used to cure jaundice.[39]
Cajanus cajanLeavesLeaf juice or leaf decoction is given with sugar (regularly in the morning) for about one month to cure jaundice.[40]
Calotropis proceraFlowersFlowers and betel leaf are taken with honey to treat jaundice.[26]
Capparis spinosaShootStem powder is taken with water at least for five to six days.[31]
Capsella bursa-pastorisStemThe stem is used for the treatment of jaundice.[29]
Capsicum annuumLeavesBoiled leaves are used as a vegetable (saag) and given for two to three days to cure jaundice.[23]
Carica papayaRaw fruitBoiled vegetable of raw fruit is given to the patient to cure jaundice.[23]
Carissa opacaRootsRoots are used for the treatment of jaundice.[25]
Cassia fistulaSeedsA decoction of seeds is consumed empty stomach for a week, daily in the morning.[34]
Centella asiaticaWhole plant (entire herb)The dried herb is crushed with kali mirch, and its paste (5–10 g is taken for seven days to cure jaundice.[23]
Cicer microphyllumSeedsSeeds are used for the treatment of jaundice.[28]
Colocacia antiquorumCormCorm (cooked or pealed) is kept in open places overnight. In the morning, chopped pieces are given with honey to the patient for five days.[23]
Colocacia esculentaBulbThe dried bulb in the powder form is used for the treatment of jaundice.[24]
Conyza japonicaLeavesLeaf paste is used to cure jaundice.[29]
Cucumis sativusFruitFresh fruit is cut into small pieces and taken thrice a day for three weeks to cure jaundice.[24]
Cuscuta reflexaWhole plantA decoction of the whole plant is used to treat jaundice.[24]
Crepis flexuosaWhole plantWhole plant juice is mixed with water in equal proportion and taken once a day to cure jaundice.[31]
Datura stramoniumLeaves and fruitFruits and leaves are used to cure jaundice.[42]
Emblica officinalisRootsA decoction of roots is recommended for two weeks to cure jaundice.[24]
Elaeagnus rhamnoidesFruitFruit juice is used to cure jaundice.[31]
Euphorbia hirtaStem and leavesStem and leaf extract is used to cure jaundice.[24]
Euphorbia tirucalliLeavesA decoction of leaves is used for the treatment of jaundice.[39]
Equisetum arvenseYoung branchYoung branches are dipped in the water overnight, and juice is (mix a small quantity of Kujja-Mishri and two and a half kali mirch seeds) taken daily empty stomach at least for seven days to cure jaundice.[23]
Flacourtia ramontchiBark, fruits, and rootsBark, fruits, and roots are used to treat jaundice.[25]
Gentiana kurrrooRootsThe root powder is used for treating jaundice.[27]
Gentiana tubifloraWhole plantThe whole plant is ground with lazi (salted curd) to form a paste and given for forty to forty-five days to cure jaundice.[30]
Gentiana leucomelaena
Gentianopsis detonsa
Gentianopsis paludosa
Whole plantPlants are crushed with a small proportion of petals of Polemonium caerulem, and this mixture is given with curd or cow milk empty stomach for fifteen to twenty-two days to cure jaundice.[30]
Gentianella moorcroftianaAerial plant partJuice of fresh extracted aerial plant part is taken empty stomach to cure jaundice.[31]
Gernaium nepalensesRootsRoot powder (2 g) is administered thrice a day to cure jaundice.[42]
Geum elatum WallichLeavesLeaves extract, mixed with cow milk or curd, is given for fifteen to twenty-two days to cure jaundice.[30]
Hedera helixLeavesCrushed leaves’ juice is used to cure jaundice.[27]
Hippophae tibetanaFruitA decoction of the fruit is taken to cure jaundice.[31]
Hordeum vulgareSeedsDried seed powder is mixed with a sugar solution to cure jaundice.[37]
Justicia adhatodaRootsA decoction of its roots is given to the patient for one month to cure jaundice.[24]
Leucas cephalotesEntire herbJuice of the entire herb (10–15 mL) is given to the patient for eight to ten days.[23,36]
Mallotus philippinensisSeedsSeed powder is given for the treatment of jaundice.
Mentha spicataLeavesFresh leaf juice is taken with Kujja-Mishri and given twice a day for two or more weeks.[23]
Morus albaFruitFruit juice is used for treating jaundice.[24]
Morus nigraFruitFresh fruit juice is given to the patients twice a day for two weeks.[24]
Oroxylum indicumBark of the stemCrushed bark is soaked in water overnight and given with a small amount of kapoor to cure jaundice. A decoction of the bark is also used for treating jaundice.[23]
Persicaria amplexicaulisWhole plantA decoction of the whole plant is given orally to treat jaundice.[26]
Picris hieracioidesWhole plantPlant extract with salted curd is given to the patient for twenty to thirty days.[30]
Pistacia integerrimaFruitFresh fruit juice is given daily for seven days to curing jaundice.[24]
Phyllanthus fraternusWhole plant, rootsA decoction of the entire herb and juice of fresh roots is given for seven days to cure jaundice.[23]
Picrorhiza kurroaRhizomeRhizome powder is used to cure jaundice.[24]
Polygonum tortuosumWhole plantA paste of the whole plant is mixed with curd (prepared from goat’s milk) and given an empty stomach for fifteen to twenty-two days.[30]
Podophyllum hexandrumFlower and leavesThe juice of flowers and leaves is mixed with butter and taken orally to cure jaundice.[41]
Prunus domesticaFruitThe fruit extract is used for the treatment of jaundice.[24]
Punica granatumFruit and seedsSeeds and fruit powder is taken with water and sugar solution to cure jaundice.[24]
Raphanus sativusRoot and fleshy partA decoction of roots and juice of fleshy part is given to cure jaundice.[24]
Ricinus communisLeavesLeaf juice is given with cow’s milk early in the morning for seven days to treat jaundice.[23]
Rosa webbianaFruitFruit powder is mixed with little quantity of water and taken daily to cure jaundice.[31]
Rubia manjithRoots and stemRoots and stem paste is given to cure jaundice.[42]
Saccharum officinarumStemStem juice is used to cure jaundice.[24]
Saxifraga flagellarisLeaves and stemLeaves and stems are used to cure jaundice.[28]
Scorzonera divaricataLeaves and shootA decoction of leaves and shoots is taken orally to cure jaundice.[31]
Sesamum indicumLeavesPowder made from fresh leaves is used to cure jaundice.[24]
Solanum nigrumLeavesTablets are made from crushed leaves and taken with imli (tamarind) or curd for treating jaundice.[23]
Solanum surattenseFruitThe fruit is directly consumed for the treatment of jaundice.[24]
Tamarindus indicaFruit and rootA decoction of its roots is used to treat jaundice. The fruit is also used to cure jaundice.[24]
Taraxacum officinaleRoot and leaves and whole herbThe entire herb in the crushed form (10 gm) is given to the patient for ten days to curing jaundice.[23]
Terminalia belliricaLeavesA decoction of leaf powder is taken to cure jaundice.[36]
Terminalia chebulaFruit
Fruit powder is mixed with rock salt and taken with warm water for eight to ten days to cure jaundice.[23]
Thalictrum foliolosumRootsA decoction of roots is used to treat jaundice.[27]
Tinospora cordifoliaFresh stemThe dried stem of the giloe is crushed with punarnava mool, and its juice is taken for seven to ten days.[23]
Trigonella emodiLeaves and flowerLeaves and flower powder is taken with water twice a day for seven to ten days.[31]
Urtica dioicaWhole plantThe whole plant is used to treat jaundice.[42]
Vernonia anthelminticaSeeds and leavesA decoction of seeds and leaves is given to cure jaundice.[27]
Viola serpensWhole plantA decoction of dried plant is taken with sugar for more than fifteen days.[24]
Woodfordia fruticosaFlowersFlower extract is used to cure jaundice.[24]
Youngia tenuifoliaLeavesLeaves are used to treat jaundice.[28]
Table 3. Major phytochemicals present in ethnomedicinal plants used for curing jaundice in Himachal Pradesh.
Table 3. Major phytochemicals present in ethnomedicinal plants used for curing jaundice in Himachal Pradesh.
Plant NamePhytochemical ConstituentData Source
Aconitum rotundifoliumDiterpenoid alkaloids (isoatisine, atisine chloride)[52]
Adiantum capillus-venerisFlavonoids, phenolic acids (sulfate esters of hydroxycinnamic acid), alkaloids, terpenoids (triterpenes), steroids, tannins, saponins[53]
Aegle marmelosPhenolic compounds (coumarins, such as marmelosin, marmesin, imperatorin, scopoletin, and esculetin), alkaloids (aeglin, aegelenine, skimmianine), tannins[54]
Ajania tibeticaTerpenoids (bornyl acetate 60.7%, β-caryophyllene 9.1%, β-eudesmol 5.3%, methyl thymol 4.3% and borneol 2.2%)[55]
Aloe veraFatty acids (such as n-hexadecanoic acid 20.47%, oleic acid 14.53%, tetradecanoic acid 1.04%, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester 13.60%, squalene 6.60%, butyl octyl ester 2.30%)[56]
Argemone mexicanaAlkaloids (argemexicaine A, argemexicaine B, protopine, columbamin, muramine, cryptopine, isocorydine), carbohydrates (arabinose, lactose), steroids (β-sitosterol, stigma-4-en-3,6-dione), terpenoids (β-amyrin, trans-phytol), flavonoids (eriodictyol, luteolin, quercetin, rutin), tannins, phenolic acids (vanillic acid)[57]
Asparagus adscendensSaponins and steroids (stigmasterol glycosides)[26]
Aquilegia fragransSteroids (β-sitosterol), 2,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester, aquilegiolide, glochidiono lactone-A, and alkaloids (magnoflorine)[58]
Bauhinia variegataTerpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, and cardiac glycosides[26]
Berberis aristataPhenolic acids (e-caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid), flavonoids (quercetin, rutin), and alkaloids (berberine, berbamine, palmatine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, oxyacanthine)[59]
Berberis lyciumAlkaloids (berberine, berbamine, chenabine, karakoramine, palmatine, baluchistanamine, gilgitine, jhelumine, punjabine, sindamine)[26]
Betula utilisTerpenoids (betulin, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, acetyl-oleanolic acid, lupeol, lupenone, methyl betulonate, methyl betulate, karachic acid), steroids (sitosterol), flavonoids (leucocyanidin, polymeric leucoanthocyanidins)[60]
Boerhavia diffusaFlavonoids (rotenoids, quercetin, kaempferol, borhaavone), lignans, steroids, phenolic glycosides, phenolic compounds (trans-caftaric acid, xanthones), fatty acids, and hydrocarbons[61]
Cajanus cajanCarbohydrates 26.425 ± 0.32, proteins 12.83 ± 0.285, lipids and phenols[62]
Calotropis proceraAlkaloids (calotropin, calotoxin, uskerin), flavonoids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, volatile oil, and steroids[26]
Capparis spinosaFlavonoids (flavonol, quercetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-β-l-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, rutin), fatty oil, carbohydrates (pentosans), and saponin[31]
Capsella bursa-pastorisFatty acids (dodecanoic acid 5.66 ± 1.17, tetradecanoic acid 29.63 ± 5.79, pentadecanoic acid 18.05 ± 3.06, hexadecanoic acid 284.48 ± 41.06, heptadecanoic acid 7.11 ± 1.60, octadecanoic acid 53.20 ± 0.68, eicosanoic acid 2.52 ± 0.33), steroids (phytosterol, cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol), amino acids (glycine, histidine), and flavonoids (tricin, kaempferol, quercetin)[63]
Capsicum annumAlkaloids (capsaicin 0.5%–0.9%), glycosides, carbohydrates, steroids, terpenoids (triterpenes), and carotenoids (capsanthin, capsorubin 4–16%)[64]
Carica papayaFlavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, and steroids[65]
Carissa opacaCardiac glycosides (digitoxigenin-3-O-β-d-digitalopyranoside), phenolic compounds, lignans, terpenoids (17-hydroxy-11-oxo-nor-β-amyrone, urs-12-ene-3β, 22β-diol-17-carboxylic acid), steroids (stigmasterol, campesterol, β-sitosterol), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin), essential oils (hydroxyacetophenone 89.5%, benzyl salicylate 6.0%, benzyl benzoate 4.6%, (E,E)-α-farnesene 3.5%), protein (1.3%), and carbohydrates (17.39%)[66]
Cassia fistulaTerpenoids (lupeol), steroids (β-sitosterol), fatty acid alcohols (hexacosanol), flavonoids (kaempferol, leucopelargonidin, rhamnetin-3-O-gentiobioside), phenolic acids (rhein, 3-formyl-1-hydroxy-8- methoxy anthaquinone), and alkaloids[26]
Centella asiaticaAlkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, and reducing sugars[67]
Cicer microphyllumSteroids (phytosterols), flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, and amino acids[68]
Colocasia esculentaFlavonoids (flavones, apigenin, luteolin, anthocyanins), carbohydrate (starch 0.23–0.52%), and lipids 0.017–0.025%[69]
Conyza japonicaTerpenoids (sesquiterpenoids, conyterpenols A−D, strictic acids), flavonoids, and their glycosides[70]
Crepis flexuosaPhenolic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate, esculetin) terpenoids (taraxast-20(30)-ene-3β, 21α-diol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid), flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside), fatty acids (octacosanoic acid, 2′,3′-dihydroxypropyl pentacosanoate), and steroids (daucosterol)[71]
Cuscuta reflexaFlavonoids (aromandendrin), glycosides, carotenoids (lutein- 10–22%, lycopene), alkaloids, steroids (campesterol, stigmasterol, stigmast-5-en-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside), lignin (sesamin), and terpenoids (lupeol, maragenin)[72]
Cucumis sativusSteroids, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, and tannins (except gums and reducing sugars)[73]
Datura stramoniumAlkaloids (atropine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine), glycosides, saponins, and tannins[74]
Elaeagnus rhamnoidesAlkaloids (carboline), terpenoids (ursolic acid, uvaol, amyrin), flavonoids (quercetin, myricetin, isorhamnetin, glucosides, rutin), carotenoids, fatty oil, and steroids (sitosterol, citrostandienol)[31]
Emblica officinalisPhenolic acids (propnyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybezonate, 2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy chromeno [5,4,3-cde]chromene-5,10-dione, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin), tannins, amino acids, fixed oils[75]
Euphorbia hirtaTerpenoids (diterpenes, triterpenes), phenolic acids (coumarins), and lignans[76]
Euphorbia tirucalliFatty acids (palmitic acid, linoleic acid), steroids (sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol), flavonoids (anthocyanin, cyanidin glycoside)[77]
Equisetum arvenseFlavonoids 0.6–0.9% (such as apigenin-5-O-glucoside, genkwanin-5-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3,7-di-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-(6′-O-malonylglucoside)-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside, luteolin-5-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside), terpenoids (cis-geranyl acetone 13.74%, thymol 12.09%, trans-phytol 10.06%, triterpenes), alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, steroids (phytosterols), saponins, and tannins[78]
Flacourtia ramontchiSaponins, steroids, sugar, lignans, and terpenoids (triterpenes)[79]
Geranium nepalensesSteroids (β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-glactoside, stigmasterol) and terpenoids (ursolic acid)[80]
Gentiana kurrooTerpenoids (iridoids, triterpenoids), flavonoids, alkaloids[81]
Gentianopsis paludosaFlavonoids (luteolin), xanthones (gentiacaulein, phenolics-1-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyxanthone), terpenoids (ursolic acid), dicarboxylic acid–succinic acid[31]
Gentianopsis detonsaFlavonoids (luteolin), dicarboxylic acid–succinic acid, xanthones (gentiacaulein, 1-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyxanthone), terpenoids (ursolic acid)[31]
Geum elatumFatty acid alcohols (hentriacontanol, hentriacontanone), sterols (β-sitosterol), phenolic acids (tetra-O-methyl ellagic acid, ellagic acid), and flavonoids (isoquercetrin)[82]
Hedera helixPhenolic acids (gallic acid 131.25 ± 1.54), flavonoids (quercetin 18.61 ± 0.37), alkaloids (emetine), amino acids, and saponins (hederacoside C, α-hederin, hederagenin)[83]
Hippophae tibetanaFlavonoids (isorhamnetin, quercetin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, quercetin -3-O- rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside), fatty acids (2-hydroxydecanoic acid, nona-7-enoic acid, undec-9-en-7-ynoic acid, 13-phenyl tridecanoic acid, 5,9,21-nonacosatrienoic acid, 1,3-dicapryloyl-2- linoleoylglycerol, oleic, linoleic, linolenic acids and fats 3.5–4.8%)[84]
Hordeum vulgareFlavonoids, phenolic acids, terpenoids, glycosides, and saponins[85]
Justicia adhatodaAlkaloids (vasicine, vasicol, vasicinone, peganine, adhatonine, vasicinol, vasicinolone), flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin), and steroids (β-sitosterol)[26,86]
Leucas cephalotesPhenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid)[26]
Mentha spicataFatty acids (methyl esters, methyl acetate 2–11%), terpenoids (menthol 33–60%, menthone 15–32%, isomenthone 2–8%, 1,8 cineole eucalyptol 5–13%, menthofuaran 1–10%, limonene 1–7%), flavonoids, alkaloids, and sugars[87]
Morus albaPhenolic acids (coumarins, benzofurans), flavonoids (chalcones, flavones, flavane derivative, (2S)-4′-hydroxy-7-methoxy-8-prenylflavan)[88]
Morus nigraPhenolic acids, alkaloids, terpenoids (oleanolic acid), and flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, kuwanon, kaempferol)[89]
Oroxylum indicumSteroids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, and flavonoids[90]
Persicaria amplexicaulisFlavonoids (quercetin), steroids (β-sitosterol), phenolic compounds (methyl-4-hydroxy cinnamate, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, methyl gallate, vanicoside A, vanicoside B), terpenoids (arborinone), 25-hydroxycholest-5-en3β-yl acetate[91]
Phyllanthus niruriAlkaloids, terpenoids (triterpenes), phenols, flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol), lignin glycoside, tannins, and fatty acids[92]
Picrorrhiza kurroaTerpenoids (iridoid glycoside, triterpenoids, kutkin, picroside I 3.66 ± 0.11%, kutkoside 4.44 ± 0.02%), steroids, tannins, and saponins[93]
Picris hieracioidesTerpenoids (gammacer-16-ene derivatives, gammacer-16-en-3β-yl acetate)[94]
Pistacia integerrimaPhenolic acids, carotenoids, terpenoids (monoterpens 91%, triterpenes), flavonoids (catechins), saponins, tannins, and steroids[95]
Podophyllum hexandrumTerpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, and amino acids[96]
Punica granatumFlavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenolic acids, glycosides, steroids (phytosterols), terpenoids, carbohydrates, and proteins[97]
Prunus domesticaFlavonoids, phenylpropanoid esters, phenolic acids (caffeoylquinic acids), steroids, and terpenoids[98]
Raphanus sativusTannins (phlobatannins), saponins, flavonoids, phenolic acids (anthraquinones), steroids (phytosterol), alkaloids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, protein 28.57%, carbohydrates 39.82% and fats 27.76%[99]
Ricinus communisAlkaloids, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids (quercetin, vitexin, rutin, kaempferol, epicatechin), terpenoids, phenolic acids (gentisic acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, coumarins), and essential oils 37%[100]
Rosa webbianaFlavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, and saponins[101]
Rubia manjithPhenolic acids (quinones like glycosides, including rubiadin,1-hydroxy,2-methoxy anthraquinone, 3-dimethoxy 2 carboxy anthraquinone, munjistin, purpurin, pseudopurpurin, mollugin, furomollugin), fatty acids (rubiprasin A,B,C), ruiearbonls, and terpenoids (aborane, triterpenes)[102]
Saccharum officinarumSteroids (phytosterols), terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, phenolic acids, fatty acid alcohols (policosanoles 2.5–80%, octacosanol 50–80% of the total policosanoles)[103]
Sesamum indicumPhenolic acids (anthraquinone) and tannins[104]
Solanum nigrumFlavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin), phenolic acids (caffeic acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid), fatty acids (linoleic acid 67.9%), carbohydrates (polysaccharides), and proteins content 17%[105]
Solanum surattenseAlkaloids, tannins, saponins, phenolic acids (phenolic methyl caffeate, caffeic acid, coumarins like imperatorin, scopoletin and esculetin), steroids (β-sitosterol), tri-terpenoids, and other major constituents like solasonine, solamargine, solasurine, torvoside K and L, khasianine, aculeatiside A, and solamargine[106]
Taraxacum officinaleFree amino acids, terpenoids (germacranolide, taraxacin, taraxacerin, a diester of taraxanthin, lactupicrin, triterpenes), carbohydrates (glucans, mannan), phenolic acids (scopoletin, esculetin), steroids (phytosterols, taraxasterol, homotaraxasterol), eudesmanolic-tetrahydroridentin B, eudesmanolide-d-glucopyranoside, and proteins[31]
Tamarindus indicaFatty acids (n-heptadecanoate 13.00%, n-octadecanoic 6.1%, methyl-n-pentacosanoic 4.45%, nonanoic acid 1.92%, nonadecanoic acid 9.2%, 10-octadecenoicacid 7.8%, heptadecanoate 3.3%, n-pentacosenoic acid 2.54%, hexacoseoic acid 0.7%) and proteins 7.5–6.6%[107]
Terminalia belliricaFatty acids (stearic acid 14.93%, myristic acid 17.70%, palmitic acid 21.6%, oleic acid 45.67%), proteins, carbohydrates, steroids (β-sitosterol), tannins (chebulanic acid, galloyl glucose), phenolic acids (gallic, ellagic acid, ethyl gallate), alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and terpenoids[108]
Terminalia chebulaTannins (chebulic acid, chebulagic acid, corilagin), phenolic acids (gallic acid, ellagic acid), steroids (β-sitosterol), terpenoids (triterpenes), and flavonoids (flavonol glycosides)[109]
Thalictrum foliolosumAlkaloids (berberine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, thalrugosidine, thalrugosaminine, thalisopine thaligosine, thalirugidine, trhalirugine, 8-oxyberberine, berlambine, noroxyhydrastinine, N, O, O-trimethylsparsiflorine, thalicarpine, thalidasine, thalfoliolosumines A, and thalfoliolosumines B)[110]
Tinospora cordifoliaPhenolic acids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, and alkaloids[111]
Trigonella emodi BenFlavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, vitexin, orientin, isoorientin, vicenin-1, vicenin-2, naringenin, kaempferol, 7,4′-dimethoxyflavanone), protein, and carbohydrates[112]
Urtica dioicaAlkaloids (betaine, choline), amino acids, carbohydrates, protein polymer (neutral and acidic), carotenoids (carotenes), and saponins[31]
Vernonia anthelminticaFatty acids (vernolic acid) and terpenoids (vernodalin, vernodalol)[113]
Viola serpensTannins, amino acids, reducing sugars, flavonoids (rutin),organic ester (methyl salicylate), glycosides (quercitrin), alkaloids (violin), terpenoids (monoterpens, sesquiterpenes), saponin, bis (2-ethylhexyl) maleate 15.62%, 2,4,4,6-tetramethyl-2-heptene 11.52%, hexen-3-ol 6.56% and cis verbeno l 4.77%[114,115]
Woodfordia fruticosaPhenolic acids, tannins (hydrolyzable tannins, such as woodfordins A, B, C), flavonoids (quercetin glycosides, naringenin 7-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside), fatty acid alcohols (octacosanol), steroids (β-sitosterol, hecogenin), and terpenoids (lupeol, betulin, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid)[116]
Table 4. In vivo evidence of ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of jaundice/hepatoprotective activity.
Table 4. In vivo evidence of ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of jaundice/hepatoprotective activity.
Plant SpeciesPlant Part Used (Extract Taken/Total Amount or Dose Required)Test Dose/
Experimental Model
Constituents Responsible for
(May/May Not Be Present)
Data Source
Aegle marmelosPulp/seeds (aq. extract/NA)CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity/albino Wistar ratNA[15]
Powdered fruit pulpGentamicin-induced liver injury/oral/Wistar albino ratsNA
Leaves/powderEthanol-induced liver toxicity/orally/male albino Wistar ratNA
Aloe veraAerial part (aq. extract/500 mg/kg bw)CCl4 (1 mL/kg)/albino Wistar ratNA[5]
Argemone mexicanaStem (aq. extract/250 and 150 mg/kg bw)CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity (2 mL/kg bw)/albino Wistar ratNA[5]
Bauhinia variegataStem/bark extract/100 and 200 mg/kg)CCl4 (1 mL/kg)/Sprague-Dawley ratsNA[119]
Berberis aristataRoot extract/NA)CCl4 (1 mL/kg)/albino ratsBerberine[120]
Berberis chitriaBark, stem extract/80 mg Livshis sample (450 mg)CCl4 (1 mL/kg)/male Wistar albino ratsNA[121]
Boerhavia diffusaRoot (aq. extract/2 mL/kg and 150 mg/kg bw)Thioacetamide (100 mg/kg bw)/albino Wistar ratUrsolic acids[5]
Cajanus cajanLeaves (methanolic extract/100 mg/kg bw)Acetaminophen and D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity/albino Wistar ratAlkaloids and flavonoids[15]
Calotropis proceraFlowers (hydro-ethanolic extract/200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg)Paracetamol (2 g/kg)/Wistar ratsQuercetin-3-rutinoside and other flavonoids[122]
Capparis spinosaRoot bark (ethanolic extract/100, 200, and 400 mg/kg)CCl4 (0.2 mg/kg)/miceNA[123]
Carica papayaSeeds (aq. extract/(400 mg/kg)CCl4 (1.5 mL/kg)/male Wistar ratNA[124]
Carissa opacaLeaves (methanolic extract/(200 mg/kg bw)CCl4 (0.5 mL/kg)/Sprague-Dawley ratsIsoquercetin, hyperoside, vitexin, myricetin, and kaempferol[125]
Cassia fistulaFruit pulp (aq. extract 2000 mg/kg bw)CCl4 (1 mL/kg bw)/albino Wistar ratLupenol[5]
Centella asiaticaWhole plant (aq. extract/(0.7 g/kg bw))CCl4 (0.7 mL/kg bw)/albino Wistar ratNA[5]
Cuscuta reflexaWhole plant (hydro- alcoholic extract/400 mg/kg bw)Paracetamol (200 mg/kg bw)/albino Wistar ratPhenolic compounds[5]
Colocasia antiquorumCorms (petroleum ether extract/NA)Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity (100 mg/kg bw)/albino miceAnthocyanins[126]
Euphorbia hirtaWhole plant (aq. extract/100–300 mg/kg bw)CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity (NA)/adult male Wistar ratFlavonoids[127]
Euphorbia tirucalliArial parts (aq. extract/125–200 mg/kg bw)CCI4 intoxicated (NA)/albino Wistar ratFlavonoids[128]
Hedera helixLeaf (aq. extract/150 mg/kg bw)CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity (5 mL/kg)/NA[129]
Hordeum vulgareSeeds (methanolic extract/300–500 mg/kg)ethanol-induced liver damage (3.76 g/kg/day)/Wistar albino ratPhenolic compounds[85]
Justicia adhatodaLeaves and flowers (methanolic extract/200 mg/kg bw)CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity (1 mL/kg of body bw)/Swiss albino miceNA[130]
Flacourtia ramontchiLeaf (aq. extract/250 and 500 mg/kg bw)CCl4 (1.5 mL/kg bw)/albino Wistar ratPhenolic compounds[5]
Leucas cephalotesWhole plant (methanolic extract/400 mg/kg bw)CCl4-induced
liver toxicity
(NA)/male mice
Morus albaLeaves (petroleum ether chloroform alcoholic and water extract 200–500 mg/kg)CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity (1 mL/kg)/Swiss albino miceAlkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, steroid[131]
Morus nigraLeaves (aq. methanolic extract/200 and 500 mg/kg)Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity (NA)/miceQuercetin,
luteolin, and isorhamnetin
Oroxylum indicumLeaves (ethanol, water, chloroform, and petroleum ether/300 mg/kg)CCl4 hepatoprotective activity (0.7 mL/kg)/adult albino ratsFlavonoids and phenolics[133]
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit (ethanol extract/75 mg/kg/day bw)Ethanol induced (4 g/kg/day bw)/albino Wistar ratPhyllanthin and hypophyllanthin[5]
Phyllanthus niruriLeaves (aq. extract/100 mg/kg bw)CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity (1 mL/kg body weight))/male adult ratsPhenolic compounds, Phyllanthin, and hypophyllanthin[134]
Podophyllum hexandrum(Hexane extract/50 mg/kg)CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity (NA)/male albino ratsPolyphenols[135]
Prunus domesticaFruit (methanolic and ethanolic extract/20–100 mg/kg)Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity (2 g/kg)/albino ratsNA[136]
Punica granatumLeaf (aq. extract/NA)CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity (NA)/albino ratsFlavonoids[137]
Raphanus sativusLeaves (methanolic extract/300 mg/kg bw)CCl4-induced cytotoxicity/male ratsNA[15]
Ricinus communisLeaves (ethanolic extract/800 mg/kg)Paracetamol-induced cholestasis (2 g/kg)/adult Druckrey ratsRicinine and n-demethyl-ricinine[138]
Solanum nigrumWhole plant (water or methanolic extract 500 mg/kg)CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity (0.2 mg/kg)/Wistar albino ratNA[139]
Tamarindus IndicaStem bark (ethanolic extract/NA)Hepatic damage induced (100 to 200 mg/kg bw)/female SD ratsNA[140]
Terminalia chebulaFruit (aq. extract/NA)t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity/(NA)/micePhenolic compounds[47]
Thalictrum foliolosumRoots (ethanolic extract (200 to 1000 mg/kg bw))Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity (2 g/kg bw)/Wistar rat and male albino miceNA[141]
Tinospora cordifoliaRoot, stem (petroleum ether/ethanol and aq. extract/400 mg/kg bw)CCl4-inducedFlavonoids, alkaloids, and phenolics[15]
liver toxicity/albino Wistar rat
Urtica dioicaSeeds (polar extract/NA)CCl4-inducedPhenolics[142]
hepatotoxicity (150 to 200 g/kg)/male Wistar albino rat
Woodfordia fruticosaFlower (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanolic/250 mg/kg bw)CCl4 (1%)/albino Wistar ratNA[5]
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Raghuvanshi, D.; Dhalaria, R.; Sharma, A.; Kumar, D.; Kumar, H.; Valis, M.; Kuča, K.; Verma, R.; Puri, S. Ethnomedicinal Plants Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Jaundice (Icterus) in Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya—A Review. Plants 2021, 10, 232.

AMA Style

Raghuvanshi D, Dhalaria R, Sharma A, Kumar D, Kumar H, Valis M, Kuča K, Verma R, Puri S. Ethnomedicinal Plants Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Jaundice (Icterus) in Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya—A Review. Plants. 2021; 10(2):232.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Raghuvanshi, Disha, Rajni Dhalaria, Anjali Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Harsh Kumar, Martin Valis, Kamil Kuča, Rachna Verma, and Sunil Puri. 2021. "Ethnomedicinal Plants Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Jaundice (Icterus) in Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya—A Review" Plants 10, no. 2: 232.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop