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Article

Betalains in Edible Fruits of Three Cactaceae Taxa—Epiphyllum, Hylocereus, and Opuntia—Their LC-MS/MS and FTIR Identification and Biological Activities Evaluation †

1
Department of Pharmacognosy and Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University in Bratislava, Odbojárov 10, SK-832 32 Bratislava, Slovakia
2
Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Institute C-1, Faculty of Analytical Chemistry, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, PL-31-155 Cracow, Poland
3
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University in Bratislava, Odbojárov 10, SK-832 32 Bratislava, Slovakia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Dedicated to the 100th birth anniversary of our late Professors Jozef Tomko and Jaroslav Kresánek, Nestors of Slovak Pharmacognosy.
Academic Editors: Alessandra Braca and Marinella De Leo
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2669; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122669
Received: 15 November 2021 / Revised: 29 November 2021 / Accepted: 1 December 2021 / Published: 4 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Profiling and Biological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds)
Epiphyllum, Hylocereus, and Opuntia plants belong to the Cactaceae family. They are mostly known as ornamental plants but also for their edible fruits, which can potentially be sources of betalains, such as betanin, a natural pigment used in the food industry, e.g., under the European label code E 162. The aim of this work was the identification of betalains (using LC-MS/MS), evaluation of total betalain content (spectrophotometrically), analysis of functional groups (using FT-IR), evaluation of antioxidant activity (using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, DCFH-DA, and reducing power methods) and evaluation of antimicrobial activity (S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans) in fruits of Epiphyllum, Hylocereus, and Opuntia taxa. A total of 20 betalains were identified in the studied Cactaceae fruits. The Epiphyllum pink hybrid had the highest values of total betalains amongst all samples. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the Epiphyllum pink hybrid, in Opuntia zacuapanensis and O. humifusa fruits. The antimicrobial activity assay showed that cacti fruits were not able to effectively inhibit the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, or C. albicans. Our results prove that these fruits are good sources of natural pigments—betalains. They do not contain toxic compounds in significant amounts and they exhibit antioxidant activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Epiphyllum; Hylocereus; Opuntia; betalains; antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity Epiphyllum; Hylocereus; Opuntia; betalains; antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity
MDPI and ACS Style

Barkociová, M.; Tóth, J.; Sutor, K.; Drobnicka, N.; Wybraniec, S.; Dudík, B.; Bilková, A.; Czigle, S. Betalains in Edible Fruits of Three Cactaceae Taxa—Epiphyllum, Hylocereus, and Opuntia—Their LC-MS/MS and FTIR Identification and Biological Activities Evaluation. Plants 2021, 10, 2669. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122669

AMA Style

Barkociová M, Tóth J, Sutor K, Drobnicka N, Wybraniec S, Dudík B, Bilková A, Czigle S. Betalains in Edible Fruits of Three Cactaceae Taxa—Epiphyllum, Hylocereus, and Opuntia—Their LC-MS/MS and FTIR Identification and Biological Activities Evaluation. Plants. 2021; 10(12):2669. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122669

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barkociová, Michaela, Jaroslav Tóth, Katarzyna Sutor, Natalia Drobnicka, Slawomir Wybraniec, Boris Dudík, Andrea Bilková, and Szilvia Czigle. 2021. "Betalains in Edible Fruits of Three Cactaceae Taxa—Epiphyllum, Hylocereus, and Opuntia—Their LC-MS/MS and FTIR Identification and Biological Activities Evaluation" Plants 10, no. 12: 2669. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122669

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