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Article

Characterization of 15-cis-ζ-Carotene Isomerase Z-ISO in Cultivated and Wild Tomato Species Differing in Ripe Fruit Pigmentation

Research Center of Biotechnology, Institute of Bioengineering, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Ave. 33, Bld. 2, Moscow 119071, Russia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alex Troitsky
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112365
Received: 19 October 2021 / Revised: 1 November 2021 / Accepted: 1 November 2021 / Published: 2 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genosystematics)
Isomerization of 9,15,9′-tri-cis-ζ-carotene mediated by 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase Z-ISO is a critical step in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, which define fruit color. The tomato clade (Solanum section Lycopersicon) comprises the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and 12 related wild species differing in fruit color and, thus, represents a good model for studying carotenogenesis in fleshy fruit. In this study, we identified homologous Z-ISO genes, including 5′-UTRs and promoter regions, in 12 S. lycopersicum cultivars and 5 wild tomato species (red-fruited Solanum pimpinellifolium, yellow-fruited Solanum cheesmaniae, and green-fruited Solanum chilense, Solanum habrochaites, and Solanum pennellii). Z-ISO homologs had a highly conserved structure, suggesting that Z-ISO performs a similar function in tomato species despite the difference in their fruit color. Z-ISO transcription levels positively correlated with the carotenoid content in ripe fruit of the tomatoes. An analysis of the Z-ISO promoter and 5′-UTR sequences revealed over 130 cis-regulatory elements involved in response to light, stresses, and hormones, and in the binding of transcription factors. Green- and red/yellow-fruited Solanum species differed in the number and position of cis-elements, indicating changes in the transcriptional regulation of Z-ISO expression during tomato evolution, which likely contribute to the difference in fruit color. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenogenesis; fruit color; Solanum section Lycopersicon; 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase Z-ISO; promoter analysis; SNPs carotenogenesis; fruit color; Solanum section Lycopersicon; 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase Z-ISO; promoter analysis; SNPs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Efremov, G.I.; Shchennikova, A.V.; Kochieva, E.Z. Characterization of 15-cis-ζ-Carotene Isomerase Z-ISO in Cultivated and Wild Tomato Species Differing in Ripe Fruit Pigmentation. Plants 2021, 10, 2365. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112365

AMA Style

Efremov GI, Shchennikova AV, Kochieva EZ. Characterization of 15-cis-ζ-Carotene Isomerase Z-ISO in Cultivated and Wild Tomato Species Differing in Ripe Fruit Pigmentation. Plants. 2021; 10(11):2365. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112365

Chicago/Turabian Style

Efremov, Gleb I., Anna V. Shchennikova, and Elena Z. Kochieva. 2021. "Characterization of 15-cis-ζ-Carotene Isomerase Z-ISO in Cultivated and Wild Tomato Species Differing in Ripe Fruit Pigmentation" Plants 10, no. 11: 2365. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112365

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