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Open AccessArticle

Top-Bounded Spaces Formed by the Built Environment for Navigation Systems

UNSW Built Environment, Red Centre Building, Kensington, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(5), 224;
Received: 3 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 5 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
Navigation systems help agents find the right (optimal) path from the origin to the desired destination. Current navigation systems mainly offer the shortest (distance or time) path as the default optimal path. However, under certain circumstances, having a least-top-exposed path can be more interesting. For instance, on a rainy day, a path with as many places as possible covered by roofs/shelters is more attractive and pragmatic, since roofs/shelters can offer protection from rain. In this paper, we name environments that covered by roofs/shelters but not completely enclosed like indoors as “top-bounded environments/spaces” (e.g., porches), which are generally formed by built structures. This kind of space is completely missing in current navigation models and systems. Thus, we investigate how to use it for space-based navigation. After proposing a definition, a space model, and attributes of top-bounded spaces, we introduce a projection-based approach to generate them. Then, taking a pedestrian as an example agent, we select generated spaces considering whether the agent can visit/use the identified spaces. Finally, examples and a use case study demonstrate that our research can help to include top-bounded spaces in navigation systems/models. More navigation path types (e.g., least-top-exposed) can be offered for different agents (such as pedestrians, drones or robots). View Full-Text
Keywords: top-bounded space; built environment; space; pedestrian navigation top-bounded space; built environment; space; pedestrian navigation
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Yan, J.; Diakité, A.A.; Zlatanova, S.; Aleksandrov, M. Top-Bounded Spaces Formed by the Built Environment for Navigation Systems. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8, 224.

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