- freely available
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(7), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7070252
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. The Case Study
2.3. Methodical Framework
- The identification of development trends based on a comparison of the development goals of master plans and the actual spatial expansion in built-up areas using GIS time series mapping. This step is achieved by comparing the selected master plans and the expansion of built-up areas over time. A considerable period of time is required to prepare each master plan: For instance, while the master plan 2010–2020 for Shenzhen was finalized in August 2008 after two years of preparation, it was only officially approved by China’s State Council in August 2010. Therefore, the comparison did not seek to achieve complete consistency over time but rather aimed to compare similar time points and periods.
- Visual inspection of polycentricity using time-specific categorization to map the spatial-temporal changes in population and intensity. Considering the diversity of the discourse in regard to polycentricity, we defined morphological polycentricity as places of spatial densification, in accordance with the notions of Riguelle et al.  and Taubenböck et al. . In this latter study, polycentricity was defined as a spatial pattern featuring more than one centre within a defined area  (p. 42). Taking into account the consistency and comparability of data for the case study city of Shenzhen, which has undergone rapid urban development over a long period of time, the focus here was on two basic indicators: population density and built-up areas. We applied a set of intensity maps extracted from the GHSL data to describe the spatial distribution of the population intensity and the built-up intensity in respective time nodes, i.e., the years 1975, 1990, 2000 and 2014/2015.
- The application of time and city specific thresholding to assess spatial-temporal changes in population concentrations. We considered locations of high population density as proxies to demarcate urban centres. In this paper, we used (sub-)centres as areas of high urban concentration (in short hUC) based on the availability, consistency and comparability of data. Here, we assumed that a (sub-)centre shows hUC—the greater the number of such areas, the higher the degree of polycentricity. The population densities were calculated on a grid with s cell size of 1 sq km. The quantitative assessment drew on the fundamental logic of Greene’s method  using a basic set of reference thresholds (cut-offs) specific to the case study city and at the same time, which reflect the temporality of different phases of urban development. Since Shenzhen has applied a unified urban planning regulation, Shenzhen Urban Planning Standards and Guidelines, since 1997, we adopted relevant indicators in this regulation to define our reference values. In this document, the floor space ratio was the main indicator for determining density. Hence, according to the index for the floor space ratio of residential areas in Shenzhen Urban Planning Standards and Guidelines, we defined the ratio of the upper limit (a floor space ratio of 6) and the reference value (a floor space ratio of 1.5) as the reference threshold (density-based cut-off), giving a value of 4 to define a high urban concentration (hUC). Considering the index for the floor space ratio of residential and other land uses as well as corrective factors, we defined three degrees of high urban concentration as follows: high urban concentration level I (abbr. hUCI) with a cut-off value of 4 times the mean population density; high urban concentration level II (abbr. hUCII) with a cut-off value of 6 times the mean population density; high urban concentration level III (abbr. hUCIII) with a cut-off value of 8 times the mean population density.
3. Screening and Scoping
- 1980 “Overall Plan for the Planning and Construction of Shenzhen City”: This plan designated an area of 327.5 sq km for the SEZ and 60 sq km for the built-up area of Shenzhen city. The plan forecast a population of 300,000 by the year 1990, rising to 600,000 by the year 2000. The plan’s focus for urban development was an industry-led, industrial and agricultural combined SEZ and a new type of border city.
- 1982 “Outline of the Social Economic Development Plan for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone”: This plan extended the 1980 plan in terms of urban development and positioned Shenzhen as a comprehensive special economic zone with a strong industrial base supported by commercial, agricultural, housing and tourism development. Population forecasts were adjusted upwards to 250,000 by the year 1985; 400,000 by the year 1990; and 800,000 by the year 2000. The plan was the first to propose a polycentric linear-clustering spatial structure for the Shenzhen SEZ. This plan was partly revised in 1983 based on developments at the time. However, the unexpectedly rapid development meant that the goals set out in the plan for 1985 were already far exceeded by 1984.
- 1986 “Master plan of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone 1986–2000”: The plan revised the projections of the previous plan to a population of 1.1 million by the year 2000 and an urban built-up area of 123 sq km. Although this plan still regarded the Shenzhen SEZ as the main focus of urban planning, it went beyond the scope of the designated SEZ to determine a more advanced framework for infrastructure construction. The polycentric linear-clustering spatial structure for the Shenzhen SEZ foreseen in the 1982 plan was extended in the revised plan. In addition, the 1982 development focus was enlarged to an industry-led, export-oriented, multi-functional, highly developed comprehensive economic zone.
- 1989 “The Urban Development Strategy of Shenzhen City”: Since the previous planning-led urban development was largely centred on the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, this led to a problem of unbalanced development within and outside the SEZ. In view of the unbalanced development due to disparate property rights of urban vs. rural land as well as the contrasting conditions within and outside the SEZ, the plan, for the first time, considered the entire administrative area of Shenzhen. Correspondingly, the spatial development strategy was positioned as a city-wide development and progressive urban expansion. The urban built-up area was extended to 150 sq km, and the expected population was adjusted upwards to 1.5 million by the year 2000.
- 1996 “Shenzhen Master Plan 1996–2010”: This plan was concerned with the entire administrative area of Shenzhen city, i.e., 2020 sq km. By the year 2000, the urban built-up area was estimated to cover 380 sq km with a population of 4 million. By 2010, the urban built-up area was expected to be 480 sq km for a maximum population of 5.1 million. The plan proposed a polycentric clustering structure along axes and corridors.
- 2006 “Shenzhen Urban Development Strategy 2030”: This was the first strategic urban plan for Shenzhen. By identifying urban development problems, this goal-oriented plan aimed to “strengthen the city centre, stretch toward both wings, penetrate north and south, connect the west part and expand eastward” as a strategy to create a polycentric urban spatial structure.
- 2010 “Shenzhen Master Plan 2010–2020”: This plan’s objective was to limit the growing population to 11 million and the urban built-up area to 890 sq km by the year 2020. The polycentric urban spatial structure proposed by the previous plans was continued and refined into “polycentric development in accord with the three axes and two corridors”.
4. Analysis and Discussion
5. Conclusions and Recommendations
Conflicts of Interest
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|hUCI cut-off reference||3370.8|
|hUCII cut-off reference||5056.2|
|hUCIII cut-off reference||6741.5|
|Share of hUCI (%)||27.98|
|Share of hUCII (%)||18.78|
|Share of hUCIII (%)||13.01|
|hUCI cut-off reference||14,269.01|
|hUCII cut-off reference||21,403.52|
|hUCIII cut-off reference||28,538.02|
|Share of hUCI (%)||5.93|
|Share of hUCII (%)||2.46|
|Share of hUCIII (%)||1.00|
|hUCI cut-off reference||22,860.27|
|hUCII cut-off reference||34,290.41|
|hUCIII cut-off reference||45,720.54|
|Share of hUCI (%)||5.98|
|Share of hUCII (%)||2.61|
|Share of hUCIII (%)||1.02|
|Definition of time-specific hUCs (high urban concentrations)|
|i = number of grid cells|
PDiyear = population density in grid cell i in the respective time period (year)
PDmeanyear = mean population density in the respective time period (year)
Share of hUC area
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