User Generated Spatial Content-Integrator: Conceptual Model to Integrate Data from Diverse Sources of User Generated Spatial Content
2. User Generated Spatial Content
3. User Generated Spatial Content—Integrator Model
3.1. Minimum Requirements and Relevant Initiatives
- Type of spatial context: In this matter we found two main types of spatial resolution: places and coordinates (latitude and longitude). Places are not accurate and sometimes can be very vague in terms of spatial location . For instance, when one mentions the name of a city, there is no accurate position in that city. Coordinates refer to a location with much more accuracy and therefore are of more interest for this study.
- Type of spatial phenomena: landscape, user position, highly dynamic phenomena (natural, such as fires, tornados, etc., or artificial, such as cars, animals, people, etc.), and static entities (buildings, roads, farms). User position and highly dynamic phenomena are not of interest for this study because they do not represent physical aspects of the earth.
- Type of data: text, photos, and geometries. Text events, when georeferenced by latitude and longitude coordinates or similar, can be very precise and rich in terms of geographical information, but more research that is outside the scope of this study is needed to extract meaningful information from messages/descriptions. Photos, when georeferenced by latitude and longitude coordinates, are very useful as they provide an image of the location. Photos georeferenced by places, as mentioned in the previous point, can have a very imprecise location. Geometries are usually georeferenced by their coordinates representing precise geographic data.
- Type of access: no public access, access using public APIs, access using private API, and access using direct URLs to the photos. Some initiatives, usually held by private companies, do not provide public access to stored data or require users to pay a fee to use their private API. Public APIs are available free of charge and manage privacy issues internally, so by using them only publically available content will be accessed. In this model only public APIs are considered.
- Type of data license: Open Data Commons Open Database License (ODbL), license to public use, and license that belongs to the contributor, among others, are some of the types of data licenses used. It is important to note that our model will use only publically available data and will not store or commercially exploit the data used.
- Type of coverage: local, regional, or global. Local coverage is more related with a small portion of the Earth, like a country or a region inside a country. Regional coverage is more connected with areas covering groups of countries or continents. Global coverage is associated with the entire globe. Depending on the type of coverage of the LULC being produced and the area of the Earth being classified, some initiatives can be more interesting than others (e.g., if the working area is Portugal, UGsC data covering Ireland will not be of interest).
3.2. Structural Similarities and Dissimilarities among the Initiatives Selected
3.3. Model Architecture
4. Prototype Development and Implementation
4.1. Definition of Use Cases
4.2. Architecture and Implementation
5. Results and Discussion
5.1. The Model in Action
5.2. Challenges and Limitations
5.3. Current Status and Future Developments
Conflicts of Interest
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|Type of Requirement||Requirement|
|Spatial context||Data have to be georeferenced by coordinates|
|Spatial phenomena||Data have to represent, at least partially, physical aspects of the Earth|
|Data type||Photos and geometries are preferred but text can also be valuable if text mining tools are available and implemented|
|Access type||Data must be publically accessible through the Internet using open protocols|
|Data license||Data must be available free of charge for the purpose of land use/cover classification|
|Coverage||Depends on the type of coverage of the Land Use/Cover (LULC) being produced and the area of the Earth being classified|
|Name||Since||Spatial Context |
(Data Georeferenced by Coordinates)
|Spatial Phenomena||Coverage||Data Type||Access type||Availability|
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Estima, J.; Painho, M. User Generated Spatial Content-Integrator: Conceptual Model to Integrate Data from Diverse Sources of User Generated Spatial Content. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5, 183. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5100183
Estima J, Painho M. User Generated Spatial Content-Integrator: Conceptual Model to Integrate Data from Diverse Sources of User Generated Spatial Content. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2016; 5(10):183. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5100183Chicago/Turabian Style
Estima, Jacinto, and Marco Painho. 2016. "User Generated Spatial Content-Integrator: Conceptual Model to Integrate Data from Diverse Sources of User Generated Spatial Content" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 5, no. 10: 183. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5100183