Multifractal theory provides a reliable method for the scientific quantification of the geomorphological features of basins. However, most of the existing research has investigated small and medium-sized basins rather than complex and large basins. In this study, the Yellow River Basin and its sub-basins were selected as the research areas, and the generalized fractal dimension and multifractal spectrum were computed and analyzed with a multifractal technique based on the slope distribution probability. The results showed that the Yellow River Basin and its sub-basins exhibit clear multifractal characteristics, which indicates that the multifractal theory can be applied well to the analysis of large-scale basin geomorphological features. We also concluded that the region with the most uneven terrain is the Yellow River Downstream Basin with the “overhanging river”, followed by the Weihe River Basin, the Yellow River Mainstream Basin, and the Fenhe River Basin. Multifractal analysis can reflect the geomorphological feature information of the basins comprehensively with the generalized fractal dimension and the multifractal spectrum. There is a strong correlation between some common topographic parameters and multifractal parameters, and the correlation coefficients between them are greater than 0.8. The results provide a scientific basis for analyzing the geomorphic characteristics of large-scale basins and for the further research of the morphogenesis of the forms.
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