2. Literature Review
2.1. Operation and Maintenance for Transport Infrastructures
2.2. BIM and O&M for Transport Infrastructures
2.2.1. BIM for O&M Management
2.2.2. O&M Information Integration Issues in BIM Standard
- Infrastructure IFC schemata that are still under development . For example, The IFCBridge project has reached the implementation phase since March 2019 , while the IFCRoad has been released as a prototype data model since July 2019 . These two schemata are more oriented to manage conception and construction phase. It is perhaps primordial for an infrastructure but do not represent the whole life cycle.
- Hierarchical relations between O&M data in accordance with real technical O&M process. This solves the issue of non-structured O&M information in the IFC schema.
- Identification of O&M requirements to fully manage such a phase for highway infrastructures. This definition is based on international standards and technical documents as reported in Section 3.1.
- Extension of the IFC standard through the schema reported in Section 6. This enables standardised BIM to be applied to highway infrastructures instead of BIM–external systems linking. It allows the highway information model to be the only database shared to manage all project data through the O&M phase.
3. Materials and Methods
- Compliance: This represents the measure of a value’s conformity with a standardised value. Exceeding the normalised value leads to a problem in the process.
- Prevention: The set of actions aimed at detecting a process problem and redressing it before it occurs.
- Reliability: The measure of a process failure risk.
- Quality: This is the process steps ‘ability to meet the requirements of a smooth operation of a highway’.
- Universality: The ontology is defined in such a way as to allow an extension of the IFC standard.
- Road infrastructure management oriented: The ontology contains concepts that can be applied to the management of roads and their assets in general and not only of highways in particular. In addition, the concepts should allow the management of the O&M phase of this type of infrastructure.
3.2.1. IFCInfra4OM Definition
- Highway O&M domain study: the information’s needs and requirements for this phase are examined in order to define the concepts of the ontology. This step was based on: (1) the formerly introduced literature review; (2) international norms and standards relating to the O&M phase in the field of AECs; (3) the content of the IFC standard in terms of O&M information and (4) O&M technical documents published by specialised organisations. This step led to the completion of an O&M process for highways.
- Establishment of the IFCInfra4OM ontology: the concepts, their properties and relations are defined. The basic criteria for the definition of these concepts are detailed in Section 3.1. These concepts are also linked to the defined process.
- Extension of the IFC standard by the O&M ontology model: this step consists of proposing an extension of the IFC standard based on the ontology data model in order to integrate the O&M process within this standard. At this level, this step is not detailed, but an overview is provided in Section 6.
3.2.2. IFCInfra4OM Semantic Model
3.2.3. IFCInfra4OM Validation
- Semantic validation is realised with highway O&M experts assistance. This semantic validation was executed during several working sessions to provide remarks and recommendations about concepts, their connections and attribute information.
- Syntactic validation is achieved to verify the conformity of the model produced with the rules of UML formalism and the conformity of the grammatical rules with the XML language.
- Case study validation is made by the implementation of the IFCInfra4OM data model on a segment from the A7 Agadir-Marrakech Moroccan highway. First, a database is generated from the IFCInfa4OM data model. Second, O&M works realised on this highway segment are transcribed in the database. Third, a 3D model of the highway segment is realised. It presents the three-dimensional geometry of the segment components: pavement, traffic security equipment, digital terrain mode, and equipment installed or repaired on behalf of the O&M works. Fourth, a mapping procedure had helped integrate O&M information into the highway segment 3D model. This had allowed the construction of a highway information model. Finally, O&M information reporting is retrieved from the highway information model to demonstrate practical use of the IFCInfra4OM data model.
4. IFCInfra4OM Ontology
4.1. O&M Process and Ontology Definition
- Level of O&M concepts: This concerns the O&M phase of a highway infrastructure and incorporates the concepts necessary to describe the O&M process.
- Level of Highway components: This level contains highway environmental equipment and components. This level has not been developed within the present framework because there are indeed several models in the literature to do so [20,59,66]. Having said that, the objective here is to model only those elements that have a direct relationship with O&M. In fact, in Figure 4, which illustrates the diagram of the IFCInfra4OM ontology, the concepts relating to the components of a highway are modelled based on the LandInfra standard  to allow a first implementation of the ontology. In future work, these concepts will be replaced by the corresponding concepts on the IFC schema once extended.
4.2. IFCInfra4OM Data Model
5.1. Presentation of the Case Study
- Presence of a fault in N130 direction and a dip of 20° to the North-East giving rise to a landslide.
- Fracturing of the rock mass and unstable rock masses at the central level. This led to a collapse at the level of some berms.
- Presence of isolated boulders on the natural slope. They are characterised by a precarious balance and are likely to detach.
5.2. IFCInfra4OM Implementation
- First, a package diagram (Figure 11) is realised to illustrate the IFCInfra4OM data model structure. The model is divided into four packages to allow practical use and future software development. These packages concern O&M management, monitoring system, actor’s management system and highway components. This latter is replaced in the case study with LandInfra standard model to enable a first implementation.
- Then, a 3D Model of the studied highway was established. This model is used to connect the data base and produce the highway information model for O&M management (see Figure 9).
- Finally, a database is developed based on the IFCInfra4OM data model. This database is sustained by data from the case study then linked to a 3D viewer to enable use cases scenarios.
5.3. Results Validation
5.3.1. Semantic Validation
5.3.2. Syntactic Validation
6. Extending IFC Standard Overview
7. Conclusions and Discussion
- Hierarchical modelling of O&M data enables several analyses. Such complex analyses are not yet possible with the unstructured O&M information in the current IFC version. Examples of this analyses established in this paper, through the case study, are: (a) multicriteria analysis to extract information useful to the user such as the calculation of performance over time; (b) data combinations to allow statistics such as hazards recordings consistent to their types.
- IFCInfra4OM is expandable to be integrated in the IFC schema. The criteria adopted to define concepts allows the modelling of several object classes that are interoperable with IFCRoad.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Computer Aided Management System||Its Definition|
|Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS)||They are digital systems that integrate equipment inventory and ordered maintenance operations of a facility to help its daily management [23,28].|
|Building Automation Systems (BAS)||They are networks of electronic devices designed to control all systems in a construction (lighting, fire, security, HVAC…) in order to keep its environment in a defined range and to optimise its maintenance .|
|Integrated Work- place Management Systems (IWMS)||They are defined in  as a complete system that assimilate all strategic and operational systems of a facility to allow its efficient functioning on quality, environment, health and security levels.|
|Intelligent Transport Systems Management||They are systems that enable an optimisation of travel experience for transport infrastructures users [31,32]. A relevant example is Real-Time Crowding Systems that improve travel conditions by collecting real-time data on passenger flows and crowding levels from multiple sources .|
|Transport Safety Systems||They are systems based on several telecommunication technologies and application processes. They guaranty the safety of transport system and its environment. These systems integrate multisource data to enable danger prevention .|
|Information Type||Its Definition [36,38]|
|Project information||it represents legal and financial data of the facility.|
|Asset’s information||it traces geometric and functional information about objects and equipment subject to O&M.|
|Operating information||it includes real-time collected data by a monitoring system or an operating human to insure statutory inspection process.|
|Safety information||it allows automatic notifications to inform in case of emergency problem.|
|Performance information||they are the indicators that help analyse activities efficiency.|
|Stakeholders’ information||it allows automatic notifications to inform in case of emergency problem.|
|Base Document||Knowledge Domain|
|ISO 55000 standard ||Asset Management (transport infrastructures included)|
|PAS 1192-3 standard ||BIM and O&M for Building|
|EurOTL Ontology ||Road Asset Information Management|
|BSI technical report on the requirements of infrastructure managers in a BIM process ||BIM and Infrastructure Asset Management|
|Morocco Highway Organization (ADM) technical documents [61,62,63,64,65]||Highway Infrastructure and O&M|
|LandInfra standard (OGC) ||Geographic Information System and Roads|
|BIM Standard: IFC 4.3 ||BIM and Transport Infrastructures|
|AMS Concept||Rule||Associated IFCInfra4OM Concept|
|Compliance||Exceeding the normalised value leads to the realisation of a problem in the process.|
|Prevention||The establishment of a monitoring system helps prevention.|
|Reliability||The inspection of the results of an operation after a defined period of time judges its reliability.|
|Quality||The study of solutions proposed by an inspection judges their quality.The inspection of the results of an operation after a defined period of time judges its quality.|
|LODt||IFCInfra4OM Concept Example||UML Modelling|
|High||Monitoring Data||Object Class|
|Medium||Replacement||Enumeration Type of the Class Object ‘Operation’|
|Low||Risk||Attribute of the Class ‘Hazard’|
|IFCInfra4OM Concept||Type||Origin Concept||Base Standard|
|Technical Solution||Class||TechnicalSolution||EurOTL Standard|
|Installation of dynamic barriers to stop falling rocks on the roadway||Completed||Realisation|
|Installation of a 3-level gabion wall in the intermediate zone||Completed||Realisation|
|Reinforcement of the existing slope by nailing and shotcrete||Completed||Reparation|
|Validation Step||Validation Rule||Result|
|Validation of UML model||Well-formedness of entities and relationships:||Checked|
|Validation of XML model||XML grammar compliant declaration of:||Checked|
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