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Remote Presence: Development and Usability Evaluation of a Head-Mounted Display for Camera Control on the da Vinci Surgical System

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
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Robotics 2019, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics8020031
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
This paper describes the development of a new method to control the camera arm of a surgical robot and create a better sense of remote presence for the surgeon. The current surgical systems are entirely controlled by the surgeon, using hand controllers and foot pedals to manipulate either the instrument or the camera arms. The surgeon must pause the operation to move the camera arm to obtain a desired view and then resume the operation. The camera and tools cannot be moved simultaneously, leading to interrupted and unnatural movements. These interruptions can lead to medical errors and extended operation times. In our system, the surgeon controls the camera arm by his natural head movements while being immersed in a 3D-stereo view of the scene with a head-mounted display (HMD). The novel approach enables the camera arm to be maneuvered based on sensors of the HMD. We implemented this method on a da Vinci Standard Surgical System using the HTC Vive headset along with the Unity engine and the Robot Operating System framework. This paper includes the result of a subjective six-participant usability study that compares the workload of the traditional clutched camera control method against the HMD-based control. Initial results indicate that the system is usable, stable, and has a lower physical and mental workload when using the HMD control method. View Full-Text
Keywords: robotic surgery; head-mounted display; laparoscopic surgery; robotic camera control; da Vinci Surgical System robotic surgery; head-mounted display; laparoscopic surgery; robotic camera control; da Vinci Surgical System
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Dardona, T.; Eslamian, S.; Reisner, L.A.; Pandya, A. Remote Presence: Development and Usability Evaluation of a Head-Mounted Display for Camera Control on the da Vinci Surgical System. Robotics 2019, 8, 31.

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