Technology Acceptance and User-Centred Design of Assistive Exoskeletons for Older Adults: A Commentary
- Robust control
- Safety and dependability
- Ease of wear ability/portability
2. Technology Acceptance Models
- Theory of reasoned action 
- Theory of planned behaviour 
- Technology acceptance model 
- Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 
- The Almere model 
- Senior technology acceptance model 
2.1. Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
2.2. Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)
2.3. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
2.4. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)
- Performance expectancy—e.g., I would find the system useful in my job.
- Effort expectancy—e.g., It would be easy for me to become skilful at using the system.
- Attitude toward using technology—i.e., using the system is a bad/good idea.
- Social influence—e.g., People who influence my behaviour think that I should use the system.
- Facilitating conditions—e.g., I have the resources necessary to use the system.
- Self-efficacy—e.g., I could complete a job or task using the system…if I could call someone if I got stuck.
- Anxiety—e.g., It scares me to think that I could lose a lot of information using the system by hitting a wrong key.
- Behavioural intention to use the system—e.g., I intend to use the system in the next number of months.
2.5. Almere TAM
- Anxiety—anxious or emotional reactions when using the system
- Attitude—positive or negative feelings about the application of the technology
- Facilitating conditions—objective factors in the environment that facilitate using the system
- Intention to use—The outspoken intention to use the system over a longer period of time
- Perceived adaptability—the perceived ability of the system to be adaptive to the changing needs of the user
- Perceived enjoyment—feelings of joy or pleasure by the user associated with the use of the system
- Perceived ease of use—the degree to which the user believes that using the system would be free of effort
- Perceived sociability—the perceived ability of the system to inform sociable behaviour
- Perceived usefulness—the degree to which a person believes that using the system would enhance his or her daily activities
- Social influence—the user’s perception of how people who are important to them think about him/her using the system
- Social presence—the experience of sensing a social entity when interacting with the system
- Trust—the belief that the system performs with integrity and reliability
- Use—the actual use of the system over a longer period of time
2.6. Senior Technology Acceptance Model (STAM)
3.1. TAMs and Assistive Technology Models
3.2. User-Centred Design of Assistive Exoskeletons
3.3. Practical Approaches to User-Centred Design of Exoskeletons
Conflicts of Interest
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|Unified Theory of Acceptance of Technology (UTAT)||Almere Model||Senior Technology Acceptance Model (STAM)|
|Evaluated older adult perceptions and user of technology||✘||✔||✔|
|Affords adaptability of technologies and future thinking||✘||✔||✘|
|Specific to robots/social agents||✘||✔||✘|
|Tested with users in social environments||✘||✔||✔|
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Shore, L.; Power, V.; De Eyto, A.; O’Sullivan, L.W. Technology Acceptance and User-Centred Design of Assistive Exoskeletons for Older Adults: A Commentary. Robotics 2018, 7, 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics7010003
Shore L, Power V, De Eyto A, O’Sullivan LW. Technology Acceptance and User-Centred Design of Assistive Exoskeletons for Older Adults: A Commentary. Robotics. 2018; 7(1):3. https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics7010003Chicago/Turabian Style
Shore, Linda, Valerie Power, Adam De Eyto, and Leonard W. O’Sullivan. 2018. "Technology Acceptance and User-Centred Design of Assistive Exoskeletons for Older Adults: A Commentary" Robotics 7, no. 1: 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics7010003