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Open AccessArticle

IMU and Multiple RGB-D Camera Fusion for Assisting Indoor Stop-and-Go 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanning

1
Department of Geomatics Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
2
Xsens Technologies B.V., Pantheon 6a, Enschede 7521 PR, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Robotics 2014, 3(3), 247-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics3030247
Received: 19 February 2014 / Revised: 24 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 11 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robot Vision)
Autonomous Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is an important topic in many engineering fields. Since stop-and-go systems are typically slow and full-kinematic systems may lack accuracy and integrity, this paper presents a novel hybrid “continuous stop-and-go” mobile mapping system called Scannect. A 3D terrestrial LiDAR system is integrated with a MEMS IMU and two Microsoft Kinect sensors to map indoor urban environments. The Kinects’ depth maps were processed using a new point-to-plane ICP that minimizes the reprojection error of the infrared camera and projector pair in an implicit iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF). A new formulation of the 5-point visual odometry method is tightly coupled in the implicit IEKF without increasing the dimensions of the state space. The Scannect can map and navigate in areas with textureless walls and provides an effective means for mapping large areas with lots of occlusions. Mapping long corridors (total travel distance of 120 m) took approximately 30 minutes and achieved a Mean Radial Spherical Error of 17 cm before smoothing or global optimization. View Full-Text
Keywords: SLAM; Kinect; IMU; LiDAR; ICP; Kalman filter; visual odometry; monocular vision; tightly-coupled; navigation SLAM; Kinect; IMU; LiDAR; ICP; Kalman filter; visual odometry; monocular vision; tightly-coupled; navigation
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Chow, J.C.; Lichti, D.D.; Hol, J.D.; Bellusci, G.; Luinge, H. IMU and Multiple RGB-D Camera Fusion for Assisting Indoor Stop-and-Go 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanning. Robotics 2014, 3, 247-280.

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