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Article

Preparation and Coagulation Performance of Carboxypropylated and Carboxypentylated Lignosulfonates for Dye Removal

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada
2
Department of Chemistry, Firoozabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozabad 74719-13113, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(8), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9080383
Received: 26 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Bio-inspired Molecules)
In this work, 1-carboxypropyled (1-CPRLS) and 5-carboxypentyled lignosulfonates (5-CPELS) were synthesized using 2-chlorobutanoic acid and 6-chlorohexanoic acid as carboxylate group donors via SN1 and SN2 mechanisms, respectively. 1-Carboxypropyl and 5-carboxypentyl lignosulfonates with the charge densities of −3.45 and −2.94 meq g−1 and molecular weights of 87,900 and 42,400 g·mol−1 were produced, respectively, under mild conditions. The carboxylate content and degree of substitution (DS) of the 1-CPRLS product were 2.37 mmol·g−1 and 0.70 mol·mol−1, while those of 5-CPELS products were 2.13 mmol·g−1 and 0.66 mol·mol−1, respectively. The grafting of carboxypropyl and carboxypentyl groups to lignosulfonate was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) spectroscopies. In addition, 1-CPRLS and 5-CPELS were applied as coagulants for removing ethyl violet (EV) dye from a simulated solution, and their performance was related to their charge densities and molecular weights. Furthermore, fundamental discussion is provided on the advantages of (1) producing 1-CPRLS and (2) the superior properties and performance of 1-CPRLS to carboxyethylated lignosulfonate. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymer material; biorefining; coagulation; carboxyalkylation; NMR; lignin polymer material; biorefining; coagulation; carboxyalkylation; NMR; lignin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bahrpaima, K.; Fatehi, P. Preparation and Coagulation Performance of Carboxypropylated and Carboxypentylated Lignosulfonates for Dye Removal. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 383. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9080383

AMA Style

Bahrpaima K, Fatehi P. Preparation and Coagulation Performance of Carboxypropylated and Carboxypentylated Lignosulfonates for Dye Removal. Biomolecules. 2019; 9(8):383. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9080383

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bahrpaima, Khatereh, and Pedram Fatehi. 2019. "Preparation and Coagulation Performance of Carboxypropylated and Carboxypentylated Lignosulfonates for Dye Removal" Biomolecules 9, no. 8: 383. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9080383

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