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Chrysophanol: A Natural Anthraquinone with Multifaceted Biotherapeutic Potential

Department of Biosciences, Integral University, Lucknow-226026, Uttar Pradesh, India
Herbal Nanobiotechnology Lab, Pharmacology Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Department of Bioengineering, Integral University, Lucknow-226016, Uttar Pradesh, India
Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, ERA Chair of Green Chemistry, Tallinn University of Technology, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia
Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Integral Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (IIAST), Integral University, Lucknow-226026, Uttar Pradesh, India
Botany Department, Faculty of Science, University of Suez Canal, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
Institute of Science and Technology of Sorocaba, São Paulo State University–Unesp, Sorocaba–São Paulo 18087-180, Brazil
Centre for Rural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(2), 68;
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
PDF [955 KB, uploaded 27 February 2019]


Chrysophanol is a unique anthraquinone having broad-spectrum therapeutic potential along with ecological importance. It is the first polyketide that has been reported to be biosynthesized in an organism-specific manner. The traditional Chinese and Korean medicinal systems provide evidence of the beneficial effects of chrysophanol on human health. The global distribution of chrysophanol encountered in two domains of life (bacteria and eukaryota) has motivated researchers to critically evaluate the properties of this compound. A plethora of literature is available on the pharmacological properties of chrysophanol, which include anticancer, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, and antimicrobial activities. However, the pharmacokinetics and toxicity studies on chrysophanol demand further investigations for it to be used as a drug. This is the first comprehensive review on the natural sources, biosynthetic pathways, and pharmacology of chrysophanol. Here we reviewed recent advancements made on the pharmacokinetics of the chrysophanol. Additionally, we have highlighted the knowledge gaps of its mechanism of action against diseases and toxicity aspects. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthraquinone; chrysophanol; pharmacology; pharmacokinetics; toxicity anthraquinone; chrysophanol; pharmacology; pharmacokinetics; toxicity

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Prateeksha; Yusuf, M.A.; Singh, B.N.; Sudheer, S.; Kharwar, R.N.; Siddiqui, S.; Abdel-Azeem, A.M.; Fernandes Fraceto, L.; Dashora, K.; Gupta, V.K. Chrysophanol: A Natural Anthraquinone with Multifaceted Biotherapeutic Potential. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 68.

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