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Open AccessArticle

Soluble Fraction from Lysates of Selected Probiotic Strains Differently Influences Re-Epithelialization of HaCaT Scratched Monolayer through a Mechanism Involving Nitric Oxide Synthase 2

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Department of Life, Health & Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Building Delta 6, Coppito, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
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Unit of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Casa di Cura “Di Lorenzo” SrL, Via Vittorio Veneto 37, Avezzano, 67051 L’Aquila, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(12), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120756
Received: 3 October 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 19 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
A growing body of evidence supports the use of probiotics in the treatment of several skin conditions, including wounds. Even if in vitro and in vivo studies have highlighted the pro-healing effects of some probiotic bacteria, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully defined. The current investigation aimed to determine the re-epithelialization potential of the soluble fraction from lysate of seven different probiotic strains belonging to different genera (i.e., Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium) on in vitro physically wounded HaCaT monolayer model. The results suggested that the soluble fraction of S. thermophilus, L. plantarum, and L. acidophilus promoted the re-epithelialization of scratched HaCaT monolayers, whereas those from B. longum, B. infantis, and B. breve significantly inhibited the process. On the other hand, L. bulgaricus showed no significant effect on in vitro wound repair. The mechanisms underlying the pro- or anti-healing properties of selected bacterial strains strictly and positively correlated with their ability to modulate nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) expression and activity. Accordingly, the pre-treatment with aminoguanidine (AG), a specific inhibitor of NOS2 activity, abrogated the pro-healing effects of S. thermophilus, L. plantarum, and L. acidophilus.
Keywords: probiotics; wound healing; NOS2; NOS2 inhibitor; HaCaT probiotics; wound healing; NOS2; NOS2 inhibitor; HaCaT
MDPI and ACS Style

Lombardi, F.; Palumbo, P.; Mattei, A.; Augello, F.R.; Cifone, M.G.; Giuliani, M.; Cinque, B. Soluble Fraction from Lysates of Selected Probiotic Strains Differently Influences Re-Epithelialization of HaCaT Scratched Monolayer through a Mechanism Involving Nitric Oxide Synthase 2. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 756.

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