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Open AccessArticle

Cytokinin Detection during the Dictyostelium discoideum Life Cycle: Profiles Are Dynamic and Affect Cell Growth and Spore Germination

1
Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, ON K9L 0G2 Canada
2
Noblegen, Peterborough, ON K9L 0G2, Canada
3
Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON K9L 0G2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(11), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9110702
Received: 10 October 2019 / Revised: 1 November 2019 / Accepted: 1 November 2019 / Published: 5 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
Cytokinins (CKs) are a family of evolutionarily conserved growth regulating hormones. While CKs are well-characterized in plant systems, these N6-substituted adenine derivatives are found in a variety of organisms beyond plants, including bacteria, fungi, mammals, and the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum. Within Dictyostelium, CKs have only been studied in the late developmental stages of the life cycle, where they promote spore encapsulation and dormancy. In this study, we used ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI+)-HRMS/MS) to profile CKs during the Dictyostelium life cycle: growth, aggregation, mound, slug, fruiting body, and germination. Comprehensive profiling revealed that Dictyostelium produces 6 CK forms (cis-Zeatin (cZ), discadenine (DA), N6-isopentenyladenine (iP), N6-isopentenyladenine-9-riboside (iPR), N6-isopentenyladenine-9-riboside-5′ phosphate (iPRP), and 2-methylthio-N6-isopentenyladenine (2MeSiP)) in varying abundance across the sampled life cycle stages, thus laying the foundation for the CK biosynthesis pathway to be defined in this organism. Interestingly, iP-type CKs were the most dominant CK analytes detected during growth and aggregation. Exogenous treatment of AX3 cells with various CK types revealed that iP was the only CK to promote the proliferation of cells in culture. In support of previous studies, metabolomics data revealed that DA is one of the most significantly upregulated small molecules during Dictyostelium development, and our data indicates that total CK levels are highest during germination. While much remains to be explored in Dictyostelium, this research offers new insight into the nature of CK biosynthesis, secretion, and function during Dictyostelium growth, development, and spore germination. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI+)-HRMS/MS); cytokinin; cytokinin biosynthesis; Dictyostelium discoideum; social amoeba; discadenine; germination ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI+)-HRMS/MS); cytokinin; cytokinin biosynthesis; Dictyostelium discoideum; social amoeba; discadenine; germination
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Aoki, M.M.; Kisiala, A.B.; Li, S.; Stock, N.L.; Brunetti, C.R.; Huber, R.J.; Emery, R.J.N. Cytokinin Detection during the Dictyostelium discoideum Life Cycle: Profiles Are Dynamic and Affect Cell Growth and Spore Germination. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 702.

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