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Open AccessArticle

Allopurinol Prevents the Lipogenic Response Induced by an Acute Oral Fructose Challenge in Short-Term Fructose Fed Rats

1
Department of Cardio-Renal Physiopathology, INC Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
2
Renal Diseases and Hypertension University of Colorado, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
3
Department of Cardiovascular Biomedicine, INC Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
4
Department of Endocrinology, INC Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(10), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9100601
Received: 5 September 2019 / Revised: 1 October 2019 / Accepted: 9 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
We investigated whether short term high fructose intake may induce early hepatic dysfunction in rats and to test whether allopurinol treatment may have beneficial effects. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats received 20% fructose in drinking water (10 treated with allopurinol and 10 received vehicle) and 10 control rats received tap water. After 14 days, the hepatic response to an acute fructose load was evaluated, and in fasted animals, respirometry studies in freshly isolated mitochondria were performed. In fasting rats, we did not find differences in systemic or hepatic uric acid and triglyceride concentrations among the groups, but mitochondrial respiratory control rate was significantly decreased by high fructose feeding and correlated with a reduced expression of Complex I, as well as decreased aconitase-2 activity. On the other hand, in fructose fed rats, an acute fructose load increased systemic and hepatic uric acid, triglycerides and oxidative stress. Fructose feeding was also associated with fructokinase and xanthine oxidase overexpression and increased liver de novo lipogenesis program (fatty acid synthase (FAS) and cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector C (CIDEC) overexpression, ATP citrate lyase (ACL) and acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC) overactivity and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPk) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation). Allopurinol treatment prevented hepatic and systemic alterations. These data suggest that early treatment with xanthine oxidase inhibitors might provide a therapeutic advantage by delaying or even halting the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatic steatosis; mitochondria; mitochondrial complex 1 hepatic steatosis; mitochondria; mitochondrial complex 1
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García-Arroyo, F.E.; Monroy-Sánchez, F.; Muñoz-Jiménez, I.; Gonzaga, G.; Andrés-Hernando, A.; Zazueta, C.; Juárez-Rojas, J.G.; Lanaspa, M.A.; Johnson, R.J.; Sánchez-Lozada, L.G. Allopurinol Prevents the Lipogenic Response Induced by an Acute Oral Fructose Challenge in Short-Term Fructose Fed Rats. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 601.

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