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Open AccessArticle

The MNN2 Gene Knockout Modulates the Antifungal Resistance of Biofilms of Candida glabrata

CEB, Centre of Biological Engineering, LIBRO—Laboratório de Investigação em Biofilmes Rosário Oliveira, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD, Devon, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2018, 8(4), 130;
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
Candida glabrata biofilms are recognized to have high resistance to antifungals. In order to understand the effect of mannans in the resistance profile of C. glabrata mature biofilms, C. glabrata Δmnn2 was evaluated. Biofilm cell walls were analysed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and their susceptibility was assessed for fluconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, and micafungin. Crystal violet and Alcian Blue methods were performed to quantify the biomass and the mannans concentration in the biofilm cells and matrices, respectively. The concentration of β-1,3 glucans was also measured. No visible differences were detected among cell walls of the strains, but the mutant had a high biomass reduction, after a drug stress. When compared with the reference strain, it was detected a decrease in the susceptibility of the biofilm cells and an increase of β-1,3 glucans in the C. glabrata Δmnn2. The deletion of the MNN2 gene in C. glabrata induces biofilm matrix and cell wall variabilities that increase the resistance to the antifungal drug treatments. The rise of β-1,3 glucans appears to have a role in this effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida glabrata; MNN2 gene; antifungal; resistance; biofilm matrix Candida glabrata; MNN2 gene; antifungal; resistance; biofilm matrix
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Rodrigues, C.F.; Vilas Boas, D.; Haynes, K.; Henriques, M. The MNN2 Gene Knockout Modulates the Antifungal Resistance of Biofilms of Candida glabrata. Biomolecules 2018, 8, 130.

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