Next Article in Journal
Improving Chemical Autoencoder Latent Space and Molecular De Novo Generation Diversity with Heteroencoders
Previous Article in Journal
Cytochalasans Act as Inhibitors of Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus aureus
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Biomolecules 2018, 8(4), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom8040130

The MNN2 Gene Knockout Modulates the Antifungal Resistance of Biofilms of Candida glabrata

1
CEB, Centre of Biological Engineering, LIBRO—Laboratório de Investigação em Biofilmes Rosário Oliveira, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
2
Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD, Devon, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [2130 KB, uploaded 7 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

Candida glabrata biofilms are recognized to have high resistance to antifungals. In order to understand the effect of mannans in the resistance profile of C. glabrata mature biofilms, C. glabrata Δmnn2 was evaluated. Biofilm cell walls were analysed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and their susceptibility was assessed for fluconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, and micafungin. Crystal violet and Alcian Blue methods were performed to quantify the biomass and the mannans concentration in the biofilm cells and matrices, respectively. The concentration of β-1,3 glucans was also measured. No visible differences were detected among cell walls of the strains, but the mutant had a high biomass reduction, after a drug stress. When compared with the reference strain, it was detected a decrease in the susceptibility of the biofilm cells and an increase of β-1,3 glucans in the C. glabrata Δmnn2. The deletion of the MNN2 gene in C. glabrata induces biofilm matrix and cell wall variabilities that increase the resistance to the antifungal drug treatments. The rise of β-1,3 glucans appears to have a role in this effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida glabrata; MNN2 gene; antifungal; resistance; biofilm matrix Candida glabrata; MNN2 gene; antifungal; resistance; biofilm matrix
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rodrigues, C.F.; Vilas Boas, D.; Haynes, K.; Henriques, M. The MNN2 Gene Knockout Modulates the Antifungal Resistance of Biofilms of Candida glabrata. Biomolecules 2018, 8, 130.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Biomolecules EISSN 2218-273X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top