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Biomolecules 2018, 8(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom8030076

Testosterone Levels and Type 2 Diabetes—No Correlation with Age, Differential Predictive Value in Men and Women

1
Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, University Heart Center, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
2
German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Site Hamburg, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
3
National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecules for Translational Approaches in Cardiology)
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Abstract

Most studies reporting on the association of circulating testosterone levels with type 2 diabetes in men are of cross-sectional design. Reports on the relevance of altered testosterone levels in women are scarce. Here, we evaluate the role of low serum testosterone levels for incident diabetes in men and women in a population setting of 7706 subjects (3896 females). During a mean follow up time of 13.8 years, 7.8% developed type 2 diabetes. Significant correlations of testosterone with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (R = 0.21, p < 0.001), body-mass-index (R = −0.23, p < 0.001), and waist-to-hip-ratio (R = −0.21, p < 0.001) were found in men. No correlation was found with age in men; in women, the correlation was negligible (R = 0.04, p = 0.012). In men, low testosterone levels predicted high risk of type 2 diabetes, while in women this relationship was opposite. Men with low testosterone levels showed increased risk of future diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91–3.72, p < 0.001 in basic model; HR 1.56 95%, CI 1.10–2.21, p = 0.003). In women, low testosterone levels indicated lower risk with (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37–0.77, p = 0.003), while the association lost significance in the fully adjusted model (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.49–1.05, p = 0.09). Low levels of testosterone predicted future diabetes in men. A borderline opposite association was found in women. View Full-Text
Keywords: testosterone; diabetes; age; prognosis; men; women testosterone; diabetes; age; prognosis; men; women
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Karakas, M.; Schäfer, S.; Appelbaum, S.; Ojeda, F.; Kuulasmaa, K.; Brückmann, B.; Berisha, F.; Schulte-Steinberg, B.; Jousilahti, P.; Blankenberg, S.; Palosaari, T.; Salomaa, V.; Zeller, T. Testosterone Levels and Type 2 Diabetes—No Correlation with Age, Differential Predictive Value in Men and Women. Biomolecules 2018, 8, 76.

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