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Impact of Oxidative Stress on Exercising Skeletal Muscle

Department of Cell Biology, University of Salzburg, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Breitenbach
Biomolecules 2015, 5(2), 356-377;
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 24 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Oxygen Radicals)
It is well established that muscle contractions during exercise lead to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle. These highly reactive molecules have many deleterious effects, such as a reduction of force generation and increased muscle atrophy. Since the discovery of exercise-induced oxidative stress several decades ago, evidence has accumulated that ROS produced during exercise also have positive effects by influencing cellular processes that lead to increased expression of antioxidants. These molecules are particularly elevated in regularly exercising muscle to prevent the negative effects of ROS by neutralizing the free radicals. In addition, ROS also seem to be involved in the exercise-induced adaptation of the muscle phenotype. This review provides an overview of the evidences to date on the effects of ROS in exercising muscle. These aspects include the sources of ROS, their positive and negative cellular effects, the role of antioxidants, and the present evidence on ROS-dependent adaptations of muscle cells in response to physical exercise. View Full-Text
Keywords: skeletal muscle; ROS; exercise; mitochondria; force generation; antioxidants; PGC-1α skeletal muscle; ROS; exercise; mitochondria; force generation; antioxidants; PGC-1α
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Steinbacher, P.; Eckl, P. Impact of Oxidative Stress on Exercising Skeletal Muscle. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 356-377.

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