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Biomolecules 2014, 4(3), 795-811;

Interactions between Calcium and Alpha-Synuclein in Neurodegeneration

Griffith Health Institute, School of Medical Science, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland 4222, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2014 / Revised: 25 June 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 14 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Binding Proteins)
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In Parkinson’s disease and some atypical Parkinson’s syndromes, aggregation of the α-synuclein protein (α-syn) has been linked to neurodegeneration. Many triggers for pathological α-syn aggregation have been identified, including port-translational modifications, oxidative stress and raised metal ions, such as Ca2+. Recently, it has been found using cell culture models that transient increases of intracellular Ca2+ induce cytoplasmic α-syn aggregates. Ca2+-dependent α-syn aggregation could be blocked by the Ca2+ buffering agent, BAPTA-AM, or by the Ca2+ channel blocker, Trimethadione. Furthermore, a greater proportion of cells positive for aggregates occurred when both raised Ca2+ and oxidative stress were combined, indicating that Ca2+ and oxidative stress cooperatively promote α-syn aggregation. Current on-going work using a unilateral mouse lesion model of Parkinson’s disease shows a greater proportion of calbindin-positive neurons survive the lesion, with intracellular α-syn aggregates almost exclusively occurring in calbindin-negative neurons. These and other recent findings are reviewed in the context of neurodegenerative pathologies and suggest an association between raised Ca2+, α-syn aggregation and neurotoxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: alpha-synuclein; Parkinson’s disease; calcium; multiple system atrophy; neurodegeneration; oxidative stress alpha-synuclein; Parkinson’s disease; calcium; multiple system atrophy; neurodegeneration; oxidative stress

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Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, A.; Goodwin, J.; Pountney, D.L. Interactions between Calcium and Alpha-Synuclein in Neurodegeneration. Biomolecules 2014, 4, 795-811.

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