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Article

Upregulated Proteasome Subunits in COVID-19 Patients: A Link with Hypoxemia, Lymphopenia and Inflammation

1
Respiratory Diseases Group, Respiratory Service, La Paz University Hospital, IdiPAZ, 28029 Madrid, Spain
2
Biomedical Research Networking Center on Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Innate Immune Response Group, IdiPAZ, 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
Faculty of Medicine, Autonomous University of Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Olivier Coux
Biomolecules 2022, 12(3), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12030442
Received: 28 February 2022 / Revised: 7 March 2022 / Accepted: 11 March 2022 / Published: 13 March 2022
Severe COVID-19 disease leads to hypoxemia, inflammation and lymphopenia. Viral infection induces cellular stress and causes the activation of the innate immune response. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is highly implicated in viral immune response regulation. The main function of the proteasome is protein degradation in its active form, which recognises and binds to ubiquitylated proteins. Some proteasome subunits have been reported to be upregulated under hypoxic and hyperinflammatory conditions. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients (n = 44) and age-and sex-matched controls (n = 20). In this study, we suggested that hypoxia could induce the overexpression of certain genes encoding for subunits from the α and β core of the 20S proteasome and from regulatory particles (19S and 11S) in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the gene expression of proteasome subunits was associated with lymphocyte count reduction and positively correlated with inflammatory molecular and clinical markers. Given the importance of the proteasome in maintaining cellular homeostasis, including the regulation of the apoptotic and pyroptotic pathways, these results provide a potential link between COVID-19 complications and proteasome gene expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; proteasome subunits; hypoxemia; lymphopenia; hyperinflammation COVID-19; proteasome subunits; hypoxemia; lymphopenia; hyperinflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alfaro, E.; Díaz-García, E.; García-Tovar, S.; Zamarrón, E.; Mangas, A.; Galera, R.; López-Collazo, E.; García-Rio, F.; Cubillos-Zapata, C. Upregulated Proteasome Subunits in COVID-19 Patients: A Link with Hypoxemia, Lymphopenia and Inflammation. Biomolecules 2022, 12, 442. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12030442

AMA Style

Alfaro E, Díaz-García E, García-Tovar S, Zamarrón E, Mangas A, Galera R, López-Collazo E, García-Rio F, Cubillos-Zapata C. Upregulated Proteasome Subunits in COVID-19 Patients: A Link with Hypoxemia, Lymphopenia and Inflammation. Biomolecules. 2022; 12(3):442. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12030442

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alfaro, Enrique, Elena Díaz-García, Sara García-Tovar, Ester Zamarrón, Alberto Mangas, Raúl Galera, Eduardo López-Collazo, Francisco García-Rio, and Carolina Cubillos-Zapata. 2022. "Upregulated Proteasome Subunits in COVID-19 Patients: A Link with Hypoxemia, Lymphopenia and Inflammation" Biomolecules 12, no. 3: 442. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12030442

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