Next Article in Journal
Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms That Mediate Transmission of Yersinia pestis by Fleas
Next Article in Special Issue
Nitric Oxide Enhances Photosynthetic Nitrogen and Sulfur-Use Efficiency and Activity of Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle to Reduce High Temperature Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Plants
Previous Article in Journal
Small-Molecule Anti-HIV-1 Agents Based on HIV-1 Capsid Proteins
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ethylene-Cytokinin Interaction Determines Early Defense Response of Wheat against Stagonospora nodorum Berk.
Review

The Hulks and the Deadpools of the Cytokinin Universe: A Dual Strategy for Cytokinin Production, Translocation, and Signal Transduction

1
Laboratory of Hormonal Regulations in Plants, Institute of Experimental Botany, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Rozvojová 263, CZ-16502 Prague 6, Czech Republic
2
Biology Department, Trent University, Peterborough, ON K9L 0G2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guzel Kudoyarova
Biomolecules 2021, 11(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020209
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 27 January 2021 / Accepted: 28 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytohormones 2020)
Cytokinins are plant hormones, derivatives of adenine with a side chain at the N6-position. They are involved in many physiological processes. While the metabolism of trans-zeatin and isopentenyladenine, which are considered to be highly active cytokinins, has been extensively studied, there are others with less obvious functions, such as cis-zeatin, dihydrozeatin, and aromatic cytokinins, which have been comparatively neglected. To help explain this duality, we present a novel hypothesis metaphorically comparing various cytokinin forms, enzymes of CK metabolism, and their signalling and transporter functions to the comics superheroes Hulk and Deadpool. Hulk is a powerful but short-lived creation, whilst Deadpool presents a more subtle and enduring force. With this dual framework in mind, this review compares different cytokinin metabolites, and their biosynthesis, translocation, and sensing to illustrate the different mechanisms behind the two CK strategies. This is put together and applied to a plant developmental scale and, beyond plants, to interactions with organisms of other kingdoms, to highlight where future study can benefit the understanding of plant fitness and productivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: cis-zeatin; cytokinins; cytokinin biosynthesis; isopentenyl transferase; cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase; cytokinin signalling; aromatic cytokinins; cytokinin transport; Hulk/Deadpool cis-zeatin; cytokinins; cytokinin biosynthesis; isopentenyl transferase; cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase; cytokinin signalling; aromatic cytokinins; cytokinin transport; Hulk/Deadpool
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hluska, T.; Hlusková, L.; Emery, R.J.N. The Hulks and the Deadpools of the Cytokinin Universe: A Dual Strategy for Cytokinin Production, Translocation, and Signal Transduction. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 209. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020209

AMA Style

Hluska T, Hlusková L, Emery RJN. The Hulks and the Deadpools of the Cytokinin Universe: A Dual Strategy for Cytokinin Production, Translocation, and Signal Transduction. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(2):209. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020209

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hluska, Tomáš, Lucia Hlusková, and R. J.N. Emery. 2021. "The Hulks and the Deadpools of the Cytokinin Universe: A Dual Strategy for Cytokinin Production, Translocation, and Signal Transduction" Biomolecules 11, no. 2: 209. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020209

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop