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Aggrecan, the Primary Weight-Bearing Cartilage Proteoglycan, Has Context-Dependent, Cell-Directive Properties in Embryonic Development and Neurogenesis: Aggrecan Glycan Side Chain Modifications Convey Interactive Biodiversity

by 1 and 2,3,4,*
1
Bioimaging Research Hub, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK
2
Raymond Purves Laboratory, Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Northern Sydney Local Health District, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia
3
Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
4
Sydney Medical School, Northern, The University of Sydney, Faculty of Medicine and Health at Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(9), 1244; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10091244
Received: 21 July 2020 / Revised: 19 August 2020 / Accepted: 23 August 2020 / Published: 27 August 2020
This review examines aggrecan’s roles in developmental embryonic tissues, in tissues undergoing morphogenetic transition and in mature weight-bearing tissues. Aggrecan is a remarkably versatile and capable proteoglycan (PG) with diverse tissue context-dependent functional attributes beyond its established role as a weight-bearing PG. The aggrecan core protein provides a template which can be variably decorated with a number of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains including keratan sulphate (KS), human natural killer trisaccharide (HNK-1) and chondroitin sulphate (CS). These convey unique tissue-specific functional properties in water imbibition, space-filling, matrix stabilisation or embryonic cellular regulation. Aggrecan also interacts with morphogens and growth factors directing tissue morphogenesis, remodelling and metaplasia. HNK-1 aggrecan glycoforms direct neural crest cell migration in embryonic development and is neuroprotective in perineuronal nets in the brain. The ability of the aggrecan core protein to assemble CS and KS chains at high density equips cartilage aggrecan with its well-known water-imbibing and weight-bearing properties. The importance of specific arrangements of GAG chains on aggrecan in all its forms is also a primary morphogenetic functional determinant providing aggrecan with unique tissue context dependent regulatory properties. The versatility displayed by aggrecan in biodiverse contexts is a function of its GAG side chains. View Full-Text
Keywords: aggrecan; tissue morphogenesis; HNK-1 trisaccharide; glycosaminoglycan; cellular regulation; extracellular matrix aggrecan; tissue morphogenesis; HNK-1 trisaccharide; glycosaminoglycan; cellular regulation; extracellular matrix
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hayes, A.J; Melrose, J. Aggrecan, the Primary Weight-Bearing Cartilage Proteoglycan, Has Context-Dependent, Cell-Directive Properties in Embryonic Development and Neurogenesis: Aggrecan Glycan Side Chain Modifications Convey Interactive Biodiversity. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 1244. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10091244

AMA Style

Hayes AJ, Melrose J. Aggrecan, the Primary Weight-Bearing Cartilage Proteoglycan, Has Context-Dependent, Cell-Directive Properties in Embryonic Development and Neurogenesis: Aggrecan Glycan Side Chain Modifications Convey Interactive Biodiversity. Biomolecules. 2020; 10(9):1244. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10091244

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hayes, Anthony J; Melrose, James. 2020. "Aggrecan, the Primary Weight-Bearing Cartilage Proteoglycan, Has Context-Dependent, Cell-Directive Properties in Embryonic Development and Neurogenesis: Aggrecan Glycan Side Chain Modifications Convey Interactive Biodiversity" Biomolecules 10, no. 9: 1244. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10091244

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