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Open AccessReview

Agricultural Use of Copper and Its Link to Alzheimer’s Disease

1
Phytotechnics Laboratory, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro—UENF; Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ 28013-602, Brazil
2
Molecular Markers Laboratory, IRCCS Instituto Centro San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefrate lli, 25125 Brescia, Italy
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Fatebenefratelli Foundation for Health Research and Education, AFaR Division, 00186 Rome, Italy
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Center for Natural Science and Humanities, Federal University of ABC—UFABC, Santo André, SP 09210-580, Brazil
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Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ 24210-350, Brazil
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Department of Laboratory Medicine, Research and Development Division, San Giovanni Calibita Fatebenefratelli Hospital, Isola Tiberina, 00186 Rome, Italy
7
Land Lab, Institute of Life Sciences, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, 56127 Pisa, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(6), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10060897
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 5 June 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic and Essential Metals in Human Health and Disease)
Copper is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans because it is an indispensable component of several essential proteins and either lack or excess are harmful to human health. Recent studies revealed that the breakdown of the regulation of copper homeostasis could be associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of dementia. Copper accumulation occurs in human aging and is thought to increase the risk of AD for individuals with a susceptibility to copper exposure. This review reports that one of the leading causes of copper accumulation in the environment and the human food chain is its use in agriculture as a plant protection product against numerous diseases, especially in organic production. In the past two decades, some countries and the EU have invested in research to reduce the reliance on copper. However, no single alternative able to replace copper has been identified. We suggest that agroecological approaches are urgently needed to design crop protection strategies based on the complementary actions of the wide variety of crop protection tools for disease control. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metal; dementia; organic agriculture; agroecology heavy metal; dementia; organic agriculture; agroecology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Coelho, F.C.; Squitti, R.; Ventriglia, M.; Cerchiaro, G.; Daher, J.P.; Rocha, J.G.; Rongioletti, M.C.A.; Moonen, A.-C. Agricultural Use of Copper and Its Link to Alzheimer’s Disease. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 897.

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