Next Article in Journal
HO-1 Interactors Involved in the Colonization of the Bone Niche: Role of ANXA2 in Prostate Cancer Progression
Next Article in Special Issue
Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Biological Bone Substitute Materials for Application in Highly Loaded Skeletal Sites
Previous Article in Journal
2,3,4′,5-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-Glucoside (THSG) Activates the Nrf2 Antioxidant Pathway and Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death in Mouse Cochlear UB/OC-2 Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Photobiomodulation Therapy Associated with Heterologous Fibrin Biopolymer and Bovine Bone Matrix Helps to Reconstruct Long Bones
 
 
Article

Exploring the Gelation Mechanisms and Cytocompatibility of Gold (III)-Mediated Regenerated and Thiolated Silk Fibroin Hydrogels

1
Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2
Biomaterial Engineering for Medical and Health Research Unit, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3
3B’s Research Group, I3Bs-Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark-Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, Zona Industrial da Gandra, 4805-017 Barco, Guimarães, Portugal
4
ICVS/3B’s-PT Government Associate Laboratory, 4806-909 Braga/Guimarães, Portugal
5
Research Affairs, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
6
The Discoveries Centre for Regenerative and Precision Medicine, Headquarters at University of Minho, Avepark, 4805-017 Barco, Guimarães, Portugal
7
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(3), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10030466
Received: 8 February 2020 / Revised: 11 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 18 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
Accelerating the gelation of silk fibroin (SF) solution from several days or weeks to minutes or few hours is critical for several applications (e.g., cell encapsulation, bio-ink for 3D printing, and injectable controlled release). In this study, the rapid gelation of SF induced by a gold salt (Au3+) as well as the cytocompatibility of Au3+-mediated SF hydrogels are reported. The gelation behaviors and mechanisms of regenerated SF and thiolated SF (tSF) were compared. Hydrogels can be obtained immediately after mixing or within three days depending on the types of silk proteins used and amount of Au3+. Au3+-mediated SF and tSF hydrogels showed different color appearances. The color of Au-SF hydrogels was purple-red, whereas the Au-tSF hydrogels maintained their initial solution color, indicating different gelation mechanisms. The reduction of Au3+ by amino groups and further reduction to Au by tyrosine present in SF, resulting in a dityrosine bonding and Au nanoparticles (NPs) production, are proposed as underlying mechanisms of Au-SF gel formation. Thiol groups of the tSF reduced Au3+ to Au+ and formed a disulfide bond, before a formation of Au+-S bonds. Protons generated during the reactions between Au3+ and SF or tSF led to a decrease of the local pH, which affected the chain aggregation of the SF, and induced the conformational transition of SF protein to beta sheet. The cytocompatibility of the Au-SF and tSF hydrogels was demonstrated by culturing with a L929 cell line, indicating that the developed hydrogels can be promising 3D matrices for different biomedical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: silk fibroin; thiolated silk fibroin; gold; hydrogel; cytocompatibility silk fibroin; thiolated silk fibroin; gold; hydrogel; cytocompatibility
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Laomeephol, C.; Ferreira, H.; Yodmuang, S.; Reis, R.L.; Damrongsakkul, S.; Neves, N.M. Exploring the Gelation Mechanisms and Cytocompatibility of Gold (III)-Mediated Regenerated and Thiolated Silk Fibroin Hydrogels. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 466. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10030466

AMA Style

Laomeephol C, Ferreira H, Yodmuang S, Reis RL, Damrongsakkul S, Neves NM. Exploring the Gelation Mechanisms and Cytocompatibility of Gold (III)-Mediated Regenerated and Thiolated Silk Fibroin Hydrogels. Biomolecules. 2020; 10(3):466. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10030466

Chicago/Turabian Style

Laomeephol, Chavee, Helena Ferreira, Supansa Yodmuang, Rui L. Reis, Siriporn Damrongsakkul, and Nuno M. Neves. 2020. "Exploring the Gelation Mechanisms and Cytocompatibility of Gold (III)-Mediated Regenerated and Thiolated Silk Fibroin Hydrogels" Biomolecules 10, no. 3: 466. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10030466

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop