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Polysaccharide-Based Formulations for Healing of Skin-Related Wound Infections: Lessons from Animal Models and Clinical Trials

1
Programa de Pós-graduação, Universidade Ceuma, São Luís, Maranhão 65075–120, Brazil
2
Departamento de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Garanhuns, Pernambuco 55294902, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10010063
Received: 10 October 2019 / Revised: 8 November 2019 / Accepted: 15 November 2019 / Published: 30 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Biomacromolecules)
Skin injuries constitute a gateway for pathogenic bacteria that can be either part of tissue microbiota or acquired from the environmental. These microorganisms (such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) produce virulence factors that impair tissue integrity and sustain the inflammatory phase leading for establishment of chronic wounds. The high levels of antimicrobial resistance have limited the therapeutic arsenal for combatting skin infections. Thus, the treatment of non-healing chronic wounds is a huge challenge for health services worldwide, imposing great socio-economic damage to the affected individuals. This scenario has encouraged the use of natural polymers, such as polysaccharide, in order to develop new formulations (membranes, nanoparticles, hydrogels, scaffolds) to be applied in the treatment of skin infections. In this non-exhaustive review, we discuss the applications of polysaccharide-based formulations in the healing of infected wounds in animal models and clinical trials. The formulations discussed in this review were prepared using alginate, cellulose, chitosan, and hyaluronic acid. In addition to have healing actions per se, these polysaccharide formulations can act as transdermal drug delivery systems, controlling the release of active ingredients (such as antimicrobial and healing agents). The papers show that these polysaccharides-based formulations are efficient in controlling infection and improve the healing, even in chronic infected wounds. These data should positively impact the design of new dressings to treat skin infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: alginate; cellulose; chitosan; hyaluronic acid; infected wounds alginate; cellulose; chitosan; hyaluronic acid; infected wounds
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Ribeiro, D.M.L.; Carvalho Júnior, A.R.; Vale de Macedo, G.H.R.; Chagas, V.L.; Silva, L.S.; Cutrim, B.S.; Santos, D.M.; Soares, B.L.L.; Zagmignan, A.; de Miranda, R.C.M.; de Albuquerque, P.B.S.; Nascimento da Silva, L.C. Polysaccharide-Based Formulations for Healing of Skin-Related Wound Infections: Lessons from Animal Models and Clinical Trials. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 63.

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