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Open AccessArticle

Polar Lipids in Starch-Rich Commodities to be Analyzed with LC-MS-Based Metabolomics—Optimization of Ionization Parameters and High-Throughput Extraction Protocols

1
GALAB Laboratories GmbH, Research and Development, Am Schleusengraben 7, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
2
Hamburg School of Food Science, Institute of Food Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Grindelallee 117, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(8), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9080167
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 12 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics: Challenges and Applications)
Metabolomics-based approaches are still receiving growing attention with regard to food authenticity testing. Such studies require enormous sample numbers with negligible experimental or analytical variations to obtain statistically reliable results. In this context, an extraction protocol in line with optimized ionization parameters was developed in consideration of potential starch-derived matrix effects focusing on the polar lipids of potatoes. Therefore, well-known extractions (Bligh and Dyer, Folch, Matyash, and a n-hexane-based procedure) were compared in a non-targeted and a targeted approach regarding the extractability of their lipids such as phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, galacto- and glucocerebrosides, di- and triglycerides, and acylated steryl glucosides. The selected Folch method was also scrutinized in view of its ability to remove the matrix’s starch and consequently improved by substituting trichlormethane with ethyl acetate as a “greener” Folch approach. Moreover, the challenge of starch-derived contamination and imminent ion suppression in the electrospray ionization source (ESI) was addressed by an optimization of ionization parameters varying desolvation settings, removing injection peaks, and increasing the angles and distances of the ESI-device. Long-term stability tests over five days were performed successfully with a combination of appropriate extraction and decreased desolvation settings during ionization. In conclusion, the present methodology provided the basis for on-going large-scale metabolomic studies with respect to the botanical origin of potatoes using UPLC-IMS-QToF (ultra-high performance liquid chromatography ion mobility spectroscopy quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer). View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; starch removal; extraction; lipids; ESI ionization parameters; UPLC-IMS-QToF; potato; Solanum tuberosum L. metabolomics; starch removal; extraction; lipids; ESI ionization parameters; UPLC-IMS-QToF; potato; Solanum tuberosum L.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Claassen, C.; Kuballa, J.; Rohn, S. Polar Lipids in Starch-Rich Commodities to be Analyzed with LC-MS-Based Metabolomics—Optimization of Ionization Parameters and High-Throughput Extraction Protocols. Metabolites 2019, 9, 167.

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