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Inborn Errors of Metabolism in the Era of Untargeted Metabolomics and Lipidomics
Open AccessArticle

NMR-Metabolomics Shows That BolA Is an Important Modulator of Salmonella Typhimurium Metabolic Processes under Virulence Conditions

ITQB Nova-Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da República, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(11), 243;
Received: 29 August 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
BolA is a ubiquitous global transcription factor. Despite its clear role in the induction of important stress-resistant physiological changes and its recent implication in the virulence of Salmonella, further research is required to shed light on the pathways modulated by BolA. In this study, we resorted to untargeted 1H-NMR metabolomics to understand the impact of BolA on the metabolic profile of Salmonella Typhimurium, under virulence conditions. Three strains of S. Typhimurium SL1344 were studied: An SL1344 strain transformed with an empty plasmid (control), a bolA knockout mutant (ΔbolA), and a strain overexpressing bolA (bolA+). These strains were grown in a minimal virulence-inducing medium and cells were collected at the end of the exponential and stationary phases. The extracts were analyzed by NMR, and multivariate and univariate statistical analysis were performed to identify significant alterations. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of 1H-NMR data allowed the discrimination between the metabolic profiles of these strains, revealing increased levels of acetate, valine, alanine, NAD+, succinate, coenzyme A, glutathione, and putrescine in bolA+. These results indicate that BolA regulates pathways related to stress resistance and virulence, being an important modulator of the metabolic processes needed for S. Typhimurium infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella Typhimurium; NMR; metabolomics; BolA; virulence Salmonella Typhimurium; NMR; metabolomics; BolA; virulence
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Graça-Lopes, G.; Graça, G.; Barahona, S.; N. Moreira, R.; M. Arraiano, C.; G. Gonçalves, L. NMR-Metabolomics Shows That BolA Is an Important Modulator of Salmonella Typhimurium Metabolic Processes under Virulence Conditions. Metabolites 2019, 9, 243.

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