Next Article in Journal
Investigating the Protective Effect of Gross Saponins of Tribulus terrestris Fruit against Ischemic Stroke in Rat Using Metabolomics and Network Pharmacology
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of Dietary Ingredients on Lean Body Percent, Uremic Toxin Concentrations, and Kidney Function in Senior-Adult Cats
Open AccessArticle

Comprehensive Understanding of the Bacterial Populations and Metabolites Profile of Fermented Feed by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

by Wei Jin 1,2,3, Zheng Zhang 1, Kun Zhu 1, Yanfeng Xue 1, Fei Xie 1 and Shengyong Mao 1,2,3,*
1
Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Nutrition and Animal Health, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
2
National Center for International Research on Animal Gut Nutrition, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
3
National Experimental Teaching Demonstration Center of Animal Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(10), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9100239
Received: 17 September 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 21 October 2019
The comprehensive bacterial populations and metabolites profile in fermented feed is unclear, which may have significant effects on the stability of fermented feed quality and animal gut health. In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry were used to explore the bacterial populations and metabolites profile in the fermented feed incubated with probiotics (MF) or without probiotics (SF). The probiotics were a combination of Lactobacillus salivarius, Bacillus subtilis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The pH and lactic acid levels were higher in MF than in SF (P < 0.05), while the total volatile fatty acid content was lower (P < 0.05). Interestingly, after fermentation, the most abundant bacterial genus in MF was Enterococcus, rather than the added probiotics Lactobacillus or Bacillus. Weissella and a few potential pathogens (Enterobacter, Escherichia-Shigella, and Pantoea) were dominant in SF (P < 0.05). Metabolomics analysis identified 32 different metabolites in the two types of fermented feed. These metabolites enriched in MF, such as maleic acid, phenylacetic acid, ethyl linoleate, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and L-theanine had potential antimicrobial activities. Conclusively, the addition of probiotics enriched a few potentially beneficial microbes and small molecular compounds with antimicrobial activities, and inhibited the potential pathogens in fermented feed. View Full-Text
Keywords: fermented feed; bacterial population; small molecular metabolites; Lactobacillus salivarius; Bacillus subtilis; Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermented feed; bacterial population; small molecular metabolites; Lactobacillus salivarius; Bacillus subtilis; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Jin, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhu, K.; Xue, Y.; Xie, F.; Mao, S. Comprehensive Understanding of the Bacterial Populations and Metabolites Profile of Fermented Feed by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry. Metabolites 2019, 9, 239.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop