Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Benzamide-4-Sulfonamides Are Effective Human Carbonic Anhydrase I, II, VII, and IX Inhibitors
Previous Article in Journal
In-Vivo NMR Spectroscopy: A Powerful and Complimentary Tool for Understanding Environmental Toxicity
Previous Article in Special Issue
Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism
 
 
Review

Amino Acids as Building Blocks for Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child’s Health, Section of Pharmaceutical and Nutraceutical Sciences, University of Florence, Via Ugo Schiff 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2018, 8(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8020036
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism)
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a superfamily of metalloenzymes widespread in all life, classified into seven genetically different families (α–θ). These enzymes catalyse the reversible hydration of carbonic anhydride (CO2), generating bicarbonate (HCO3) and protons (H+). Fifteen isoforms of human CA (hCA I–XV) have been isolated, their presence being fundamental for the regulation of many physiological processes. In addition, overexpression of some isoforms has been associated with the outbreak or progression of several diseases. For this reason, for a long time CA inhibitors (CAIs) have been used in the control of glaucoma and as diuretics. Furthermore, the search for new potential CAIs for other pharmacological applications is a very active field. Amino acids constitute the smallest fundamental monomers of protein and, due to their useful bivalent chemical properties, are widely used in organic chemistry. Both proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids have been extensively used to synthesize CAIs. This article provides an overview of the different strategies that have been used to design new CAIs containing amino acids, and how these bivalent molecules influence the properties of the inhibitors. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonic anhydrase; enzyme inhibition; metalloenzymes; amino acid; glaucoma; tumors carbonic anhydrase; enzyme inhibition; metalloenzymes; amino acid; glaucoma; tumors
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Chiaramonte, N.; Romanelli, M.N.; Teodori, E.; Supuran, C.T. Amino Acids as Building Blocks for Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Metabolites 2018, 8, 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8020036

AMA Style

Chiaramonte N, Romanelli MN, Teodori E, Supuran CT. Amino Acids as Building Blocks for Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Metabolites. 2018; 8(2):36. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8020036

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chiaramonte, Niccolò, Maria Novella Romanelli, Elisabetta Teodori, and Claudiu T. Supuran. 2018. "Amino Acids as Building Blocks for Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors" Metabolites 8, no. 2: 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8020036

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop