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Observable Metabolites and Metabolomic Sampling Protocols for Managed African Savanna Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Whole Blood Using H-NMR Spectroscopy

1
Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
2
Environmental Medicine Consortium, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
3
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Dr, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
4
North Carolina Zoo, 4401 Zoo Pkwy, Asheboro, NC 27205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chi Chen and Martin Grootveld
Metabolites 2022, 12(5), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12050400
Received: 7 January 2022 / Revised: 17 April 2022 / Accepted: 24 April 2022 / Published: 28 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites Focused on Wildlife and Conservation Biology)
We used nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR) to evaluate the metabolomics of heparinized whole blood drawn from six African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) maintained on a well characterized diet. Whole blood samples obtained under behavioral restraint, then quickly frozen in liquid nitrogen, were stored at −80 °C until analysis. Frozen samples were thawed under controlled conditions and extracted with methanol and chloroform to separate the polar and non-polar metabolites. We identified 18 polar metabolites and 14 non-polar lipids using one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectra. Despite unexpected rouleaux formation in the thawed frozen samples, spectra were consistent among animals and did not vary dramatically with age or the sex of the animal. View Full-Text
Keywords: proton-NMR; metabolomics; African elephant proton-NMR; metabolomics; African elephant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wood, J.; Morgan, D.R.; Ange-van Heugten, K.; Serrano, M.; Minter, L.J.; Fellner, V.; Stoskopf, M.K. Observable Metabolites and Metabolomic Sampling Protocols for Managed African Savanna Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Whole Blood Using H-NMR Spectroscopy. Metabolites 2022, 12, 400. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12050400

AMA Style

Wood J, Morgan DR, Ange-van Heugten K, Serrano M, Minter LJ, Fellner V, Stoskopf MK. Observable Metabolites and Metabolomic Sampling Protocols for Managed African Savanna Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Whole Blood Using H-NMR Spectroscopy. Metabolites. 2022; 12(5):400. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12050400

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wood, Jordan, David R. Morgan, Kimberly Ange-van Heugten, Maria Serrano, Larry J. Minter, Vivek Fellner, and Michael K. Stoskopf. 2022. "Observable Metabolites and Metabolomic Sampling Protocols for Managed African Savanna Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Whole Blood Using H-NMR Spectroscopy" Metabolites 12, no. 5: 400. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12050400

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