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Open AccessArticle

Glutathione Injection Alleviates the Fluctuation of Metabolic Response under Thermal Stress in Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

1
Department of Chemistry, Center for Proteome Biophysics, and Chemistry Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
2
Department of Aquatic Life Medicine, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea
3
Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA, Eumseong 27709, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2020, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10010003
Received: 11 November 2019 / Revised: 8 December 2019 / Accepted: 14 December 2019 / Published: 18 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Metabolomics Volume 2)
Continuous increases in water temperature disturb homeostasis and increase oxidative stress in fish. Glutathione (GSH) is an intracellular antioxidant that helps to relieve stress in animals. In this study, we observed the effect of GSH on olive flounder exposed to high temperature using serum parameters and NMR-based metabolomics. Based on the results from the first experiment, 20 mg of GSH was chosen as an effective dose with lower infection rates and mortality. Then, fish were divided into Control, Temp (PS injection), and GSH (glutathione injection) groups, and fish in Temp and GSH groups were exposed to temperature fluctuations (20 °C→24 °C→27 °C). In OPLS-DA score plots, Temp group was clearly distinguished from the other groups in the kidney. In the liver, the metabolic patterns of GSH group were close to the Temp group on day 4 and became similar to Control group from day 7. Serum parameters did not change significantly, but the deviation in Temp group was greater than that in GSH group. Metabolite levels that were significantly altered included GSH, lactate, O-phosphocholine, and betaine in the kidney and taurine, glucose, and several amino acids in the liver, which were related to antioxidant activity and energy system. Therefore, GSH supplements could relieve thermal stress influencing metabolic mechanisms in fish. View Full-Text
Keywords: glutathione injection; thermal stress; metabolomics; NMR; olive flounder glutathione injection; thermal stress; metabolomics; NMR; olive flounder
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Kim, S.; Kim, A.; Ma, S.; Lee, W.; Lee, S.; Yoon, D.; Kim, D.-H.; Kim, S. Glutathione Injection Alleviates the Fluctuation of Metabolic Response under Thermal Stress in Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Metabolites 2020, 10, 3.

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  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3534906
    Link: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3534906
    Description: Table S1. Normalized concentration of metabolites in the kidney. Table S2. Normalized concentration of metabolites in the liver. Figure S1. Changes in the biochemical parameters of serum in olive flounder after thermal stress.
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