Next Article in Journal
Cardioprotective Activity of Some 2-Arylimino-1,3-Thiazole Derivatives
Next Article in Special Issue
Current Approaches to Use Cyclodextrins and Mucoadhesive Polymers in Ocular Drug Delivery—A Mini-Review
Previous Article in Journal
FT-IR Spectroscopy for the Identification of Binding Sites and Measurements of the Binding Interactions of Important Metal Ions with Bovine Serum Albumin
Open AccessReview

Overcoming the Blood–Brain Barrier. Challenges and Tricks for CNS Drug Delivery

Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics, Práter u. 50a, H-1083 Budapest, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87010006
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Drug Delivery and Absorption)
Treatment of certain central nervous system disorders, including different types of cerebral malignancies, is limited by traditional oral or systemic administrations of therapeutic drugs due to possible serious side effects and/or lack of the brain penetration and, therefore, the efficacy of the drugs is diminished. During the last decade, several new technologies were developed to overcome barrier properties of cerebral capillaries. This review gives a short overview of the structural elements and anatomical features of the blood–brain barrier. The various in vitro (static and dynamic), in vivo (microdialysis), and in situ (brain perfusion) blood–brain barrier models are also presented. The drug formulations and administration options to deliver molecules effectively to the central nervous system (CNS) are presented. Nanocarriers, nanoparticles (lipid, polymeric, magnetic, gold, and carbon based nanoparticles, dendrimers, etc.), viral and peptid vectors and shuttles, sonoporation and microbubbles are briefly shown. The modulation of receptors and efflux transporters in the cell membrane can also be an effective approach to enhance brain exposure to therapeutic compounds. Intranasal administration is a noninvasive delivery route to bypass the blood–brain barrier, while direct brain administration is an invasive mode to target the brain region with therapeutic drug concentrations locally. Nowadays, both technological and mechanistic tools are available to assist in overcoming the blood–brain barrier. With these techniques more effective and even safer drugs can be developed for the treatment of devastating brain disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: structure of the blood–brain barrier; models of the blood–brain barrier; drug delivery across the blood–brain barrier; nanocarriers; nanoparticles; vectors; intranasal delivery; efflux transporter inhibition; ultrasound-microbubbles structure of the blood–brain barrier; models of the blood–brain barrier; drug delivery across the blood–brain barrier; nanocarriers; nanoparticles; vectors; intranasal delivery; efflux transporter inhibition; ultrasound-microbubbles
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bors, L.A.; Erdő, F. Overcoming the Blood–Brain Barrier. Challenges and Tricks for CNS Drug Delivery. Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87, 6.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop