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Scientia Pharmaceutica is published by MDPI from Volume 84 Issue 3 (2016). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Austrian Pharmaceutical Society (Österreichische Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft, ÖPhG).
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Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(4), 709-722;

Pioglitazone and Endothelial Dysfunction: Pleiotropic Effects and Possible Therapeutic Implications

Department of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology; Faculty of Medicine; University of Belgrade; PO Box 38; 11129 Belgrade; Serbia
Received: 22 July 2014 / Accepted: 18 August 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
PDF [149 KB, uploaded 28 September 2016]


The vascular endothelium has a central role in the modulation of vascular tone with associated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pro-fibrinolytic, anti-adhesive, and anticoagulant effects. This is primarily accomplished by the timely release of endothelial autacoids. On the other hand, endothelial dysfunction (ED) pro-voked by insulin resistance has been linked with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and alterations of endothelial regeneration. Pioglitazone is classified as an insulin-sensitizing, anti-hyperglycemic agent. The mechanism of action associated with pio-glitazone includes the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma with stable improvement in glycemic control in diabetic patients. Today, it is known that apart from the beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, pioglitazone exerts several pleiotropic effects, including the improvement of ED. Thus, the aim of this article was to summarize the current knowledge related to signaling mechanisms of the pioglitazone-induced improvement or reversal of ED. The relevant clinical studies and possible therapeutic implications connected to pioglitazone-related action on the endothelium were analyzed too.
Keywords: Pioglitazone; Endothelial dysfunction; Diabetes; Nitric oxide; PPARγ Pioglitazone; Endothelial dysfunction; Diabetes; Nitric oxide; PPARγ
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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RADENKOVIĆ, M. Pioglitazone and Endothelial Dysfunction: Pleiotropic Effects and Possible Therapeutic Implications. Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82, 709-722.

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