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Examining Perceived Entrepreneurial Stress: A Causal Interpretation through Cross-Lagged Panel Study

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School of Business, American University of Ras Al Khaimah, Ras Al Khaimah 86416, UAE
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Leeds Business School, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds LS1 3HE, UK
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School of Business, University of Bedfordshire, Bedfordshire LU1 3JU, UK
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Business Faculty, Majan University College, Muscat 112, Oman
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7010001
Received: 1 December 2020 / Accepted: 16 December 2020 / Published: 22 December 2020
The entrepreneurial stress construct’s nomological validity is not well established as past studies have not delineated between entrepreneurial and employee stress. This study investigated several entrepreneurship-specific stressors positing their causal effect on perceived entrepreneurial stress (PES). It examined four directional hypotheses testing the causal, reverse, reciprocal relationships and moderation effects between stressors and PES. Further, it looked at the moderating impact of psychological capital. More than 300 entrepreneurs in emerging markets, namely India, Pakistan, and the United Arab Emirates, participated in this longitudinal study (Time 1 n = 325, Time 2 n = 310). The study adopted a cross-lagged competing model research design and analyzed the data using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that entrepreneurship-specific personal, social, and occupational stressors cause PES. Further, the results also support the reverse causal effect of PES on stressors and a reciprocal relationship. The study advances resource-based theory to an entrepreneurial background, highlighting the role of intangible resource gaps in perceived entrepreneurial stress. The study concludes that entrepreneurship-specific intangible resources are useful to entrepreneurs at personal, social, and occupational levels. An actual or perceived loss of these resources may lead to perceived entrepreneurial stress. Furthermore, PES can interfere with the entrepreneurial capacity for innovation over time. Psychological capital can be an effective coping response as a moderator of perceived entrepreneurial stress’ adverse effects. This is one of the first studies that examines PES in an emerging market context, specific to entrepreneurial employment. View Full-Text
Keywords: perceived entrepreneurial stress; stressors; open innovation; psychological capital; resource-based theory; cross-lagged panel study; emerging markets; structural equation modeling perceived entrepreneurial stress; stressors; open innovation; psychological capital; resource-based theory; cross-lagged panel study; emerging markets; structural equation modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arshi, T.; Kamal, Q.; Burns, P.; Tewari, V.; Rao, V. Examining Perceived Entrepreneurial Stress: A Causal Interpretation through Cross-Lagged Panel Study. J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7, 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7010001

AMA Style

Arshi T, Kamal Q, Burns P, Tewari V, Rao V. Examining Perceived Entrepreneurial Stress: A Causal Interpretation through Cross-Lagged Panel Study. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity. 2021; 7(1):1. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7010001

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arshi, Tahseen; Kamal, Qazi; Burns, Paul; Tewari, Veena; Rao, Venkoba. 2021. "Examining Perceived Entrepreneurial Stress: A Causal Interpretation through Cross-Lagged Panel Study" J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 7, no. 1: 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7010001

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