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Open AccessReview

Cancer-Associated Thrombosis: A New Light on an Old Story

Department of Hematology/Medical Oncology, Medway NHS Foundation Trust, Windmill Road, Gillingham ME7 5NY, UK
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, West Suffolk Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Hardwick Lane, Bury St Edmunds IP33 2QZ, UK
Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine, School of Cancer & Pharmaceutical Sciences, King’s College London, London SE1 9RT, UK
AELIA Organization, 9th Km Thessaloniki-Thermi, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marat Ezhov
Diseases 2021, 9(2), 34;
Received: 15 March 2021 / Revised: 8 April 2021 / Accepted: 1 May 2021 / Published: 4 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thrombosis and Coagulopathy)
Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) is a rising and significant phenomenon, becoming the second leading cause of death in cancer patients. Pathophysiology of CAT differs from thrombosis in the non-cancer population. There are additional risk factors for thrombosis specific to cancer including cancer type, histology, and treatment, such as chemotherapy. Recently developed scoring systems use these risk factors to stratify the degree of risk and encourage thromboprophylaxis in intermediate- to high-risk patients. Anticoagulation is safely used for prophylaxis and treatment of CAT. Both of these have largely been with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), rather than the vitamin K antagonist (VKA); however, there has been increasing evidence for direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) use. Consequently, international guidelines have also adapted to recommend the role of DOACs in CAT. Using DOACs is a turning point for CAT, but further research is warranted for their long-term risk profile. This review will discuss mechanisms, risk factors, prophylaxis and management of CAT, including both LMWH and DOACs. There will also be a comparison of current international guidelines and how they reflect the growing evidence base. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; thrombosis; thromboembolism; heparins; direct oral anticoagulant cancer; thrombosis; thromboembolism; heparins; direct oral anticoagulant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shah, S.; Karathanasi, A.; Revythis, A.; Ioannidou, E.; Boussios, S. Cancer-Associated Thrombosis: A New Light on an Old Story. Diseases 2021, 9, 34.

AMA Style

Shah S, Karathanasi A, Revythis A, Ioannidou E, Boussios S. Cancer-Associated Thrombosis: A New Light on an Old Story. Diseases. 2021; 9(2):34.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shah, Sidrah; Karathanasi, Afroditi; Revythis, Antonios; Ioannidou, Evangelia; Boussios, Stergios. 2021. "Cancer-Associated Thrombosis: A New Light on an Old Story" Diseases 9, no. 2: 34.

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