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The Presence of Gut Microbial Genes Encoding Bacterial Genotoxins or Pro-Inflammatory Factors in Stool Samples from Individuals with Colorectal Neoplasia

1
University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan 00936, Puerto Rico
2
Molecular Sciences Research Center, San Juan 00926, Puerto Rico
3
University of Puerto Rico, Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Juan 00936, Puerto Rico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Diseases 2019, 7(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7010016
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Bacterial Infection in Cancer)
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Abstract

Gut bacterial toxins are thought to contribute to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study examines the presence of specific gut bacterial toxin genes in stool samples from individuals with colorectal neoplasia (adenomas and/or CRC). The presence of bacterial genes encoding genotoxic or pro-inflammatory factors (pks, tcpC, gelE, cnf-1, AMmurB, and usp) was established by PCR of stool samples from individuals from mainland US (n = 30; controls = 10, adenoma = 10, CRC = 10) and from Puerto Rico (PR) (n = 33; controls = 13; adenomas = 8; CRC = 12). Logistic regression models and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the magnitude of association. Distinct bacterial gene profiles were observed in each sample cohort. In individuals with CRC, AMmurB was detected more frequently in samples from the US and gelE in samples from PR. In samples from PR, individuals with ≥2 gut bacterial toxin genes in stool had higher odds of having colorectal neoplasia (OR = 11.0, 95%: CI 1.0–637.1): however, no significant association between bacterial genes and colorectal neoplasia was observed in the US cohort. Further analyses are warranted in a larger cohort to validate these preliminary findings, but these encouraging results highlight the importance of developing bacterial markers as tools for CRC diagnosis or risk stratification. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; colorectal neoplasia; colorectal cancer; microbial biomarkers gut microbiota; colorectal neoplasia; colorectal cancer; microbial biomarkers
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gómez-Moreno, R.; González-Pons, M.; Soto-Salgado, M.; Cruz-Correa, M.; Baerga-Ortiz, A. The Presence of Gut Microbial Genes Encoding Bacterial Genotoxins or Pro-Inflammatory Factors in Stool Samples from Individuals with Colorectal Neoplasia. Diseases 2019, 7, 16.

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