Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection that is typically associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the frequency of this infection, but has led to the emergence of atypical cases of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Here, we describe the case of a 40-year-old man who was diagnosed with HIV infection and cryptococcal meningitis. He was successfully treated with antifungals and then started antiretroviral therapy. The patient returned to the hospital 15 months later complaining of fever, pain, and neck swelling. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a conglomerate of necrotic lymph nodes in the supraclavicular region. He underwent biopsy and histology showed granulomatous inflammation with fungal elements, consistent with Cryptococcus
. He tested positive for serum cryptococcal antigen. The patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin and flucytosine. After induction therapy, he was re-started on fluconazole. The final fungal cultures were negative. We attributed our patient’s clinical presentation to “paradoxical” IRIS, which was associated with his previously treated cryptococcosis. Near resolution of the supraclavicular mass was noted at the 3-month follow-up.
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